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TATTOO MEDICAL ISSUES JB3
SPCP study notes
Terms in this set (73)
Body fluids can carry contagious diseases such as...
Hepatitis and HIV
Sterilization is defines as?
the use of a physical or chemical procedure to destroy all microbial life, including large numbers of highly resistant bacterial endospores.
Cite two methods of sterilization acceptable for our work.
An autoclave and a dry heat sterilizer.
What is an autoclave?
A sterilizer using steam under pressure at about 260 degrees F at 15 lb. Psi.
A Dry Heat Sterilizer works how?
By reaching a certain temperature (340 F) and staying at that temperature for an hour or more.
Where are sterilizers purchased?
They are sold by electrologist, permanent cosmetic and tattoo suppliers.
Before sterilizing what should you do to your tools?
Use an ultrasonic cleaner to free particles and Clean your tools thoroughly with soap and water and little scrub brushes.
What does an ultrasonic cleaner do?
Ultrasonic cleaners use acoustical vibrations at high frequencies through a liquid medium to dislodge debris through a process called cavitation.
What is Cavitation?
The process in which bubbles adhere to the surface of an instrument where they implode, causing foreign mater to be totally dislodged from surfaces, pores, tight joints and places that cannot be reached by soaking and scrubbing.
What is a biologic indicator?
Also known as Spore Strips used to test your autoclave. These are Biologic indicators that guarantee sterility has been achieved and indicate your sterilizer is working properly.
How often should you Spore Test
At least once per month.
What are some common allergens that may effect tattoo procedures?
Latex Allergy, Metals (especially Nickel)
Medical issues that should be analyzed include?
Diabetes, Heart Palpitations, Viral Hepatitis, Seziures, Prescription Drugs
What are some prescription drugs to look out for?
Blood thinners, Clotters, blood pressure medications and accutane
What should be done when a client has Hepatitis?
If you chose to work on a client with Hepatitis practice your usual level of Universal Precautions. These precautions are designed to protect you from such exposures.
What are some precautions you should take if a client has a history of seizures?
Predisposed individuals are susceptible to seizure when encountering painful or stressful situations. It is best to have someone present who knows the client and how to deal with the type of seizures they may have.
Clients with mitral valve prolapse, artificial heart valves or artificial joints are often placed on antibiotics during dental procedures, should it be the same for tattoo procedures?
Yes, but if in doubt, call your clients physician and ask what they might like to do in this situation.
Allergic reactions to tattoo pigments are something to be watchful of, true or false?
Yes, allergic reactions are well known in medical literature.
What pigment has been reported most often to have problems with allergic reaction?
Reds are reported most often.
Are allergic reactions, common or rare?
What is Hepatitis?
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by certain viruses and other factors, such as bacteria, alcohol abuse, some medications and trauma.
What are some symptoms of Hepatitis?
mild fever, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, abdominal and gastric discomfort and later jaundice, liver enlargement, clay-colorored stools, and tea-colored urine.
Depending on the type and cause, can hepatitis be recovered from?
Yes, hepatitis may be mild and brief. The liver is able to regenerate its tissue.
How is Hepatitis A virus transmitted?
Where is Hep A commonly found?
In contaminated Food and Water (most commonly shellfish)
HBV or Hepatitis B is a serious threat to those working in health care. True or False
While direct needle stick is the most efficient mode of transmission, indirect transfer can also occur by means of environmental surfaces. True or False
True --you can contract HBV from a contaminated clip cord or counter top.
Many people infected with HBV show no symptoms. How many with HBV have a 'Silent Disease'
About 1/3 of the infected
HCV infections are most commonly transmitted how?
By injecting drugs, persons with occupational exposure to blood, mother to child-transmission during birth and hemodialasys patients. Sexual transmission has also been documented.
HBV spread is much less likely than HBV or AIDS
HCV is a generally mild condition but it more likely than HBV to lead to chronic liver disease. True or False
Is there a vaccine for HCV?
Currently there are no Vaccines for HCV
HDV infections only occur in those who are HBV or HBA positive and who are either n the acute or chronic phase of HBV infection. Why is that?
HDV is an incomplete RNA virus that requires helper functions of HBV for its replication and transmission.
HDV is a potentially severe disease and most cases occur among people who are frequently exposed to blood.
Small scale epidemics have occurred among drug users who share contaminated needles.
HEV causes acute infections is commonly referred to as?
eccentrically transmitted non-A non-B hepatitis
HEV infection does not lead to chronic hepatitis nor has a carrier state been described. How is it transmitted.
HEV is transmitted by the fecal oral route by the same modes that been described for HAV
What is usually the source of transmission of HEV?
Contaminated drinking water
What is HYPERPIGMENTATION?
is the darkening of an area of skin or nails caused by increased melanin
What are the 4 basic chromophores in human skin?
Melanin (brown or Blue) Carotene (Yellow0 Oxygenated hemoglobin (red) Deoxygenated hemoglobin (blue)
Skin can respond with hyperpigmentation after being tattooed for what reason?
Damage to the skin causes pigment cells to increase melanin production in the epidermis.
Describe Osha's Exposure control plan
1. Use work practice controls to eliminate or minimize employee exposure to blood borne pathogens.
2. Ensure the facility is maintained in a clean sanitary condition.
3. Establish HBV vaccination program
4. Establish a post-exposure evaluation
5. Use specified bio hazard warning labels
Set up an information and training program
What are UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS
This basically means treating all human blood or body fluids as if they were infected with AIDS, Hepatitis or other bloodborne pathogens.
UP* 1. As soon as possible after use, contaminated needles must be placed in a sharps container. These containers must be puncture-proof, leak-proof, red in color or laeled with the appropriate biohazard label.
As soon as possible, place needle in sharps container.
UP* 2. Specimens of blood or other potentially infectious materials must be placed in containers which prevent leakage.
Dispose of any paper towels or plastic wraps in a sturdy plastic bag.
UP* 3. Provide handwashing facilities which are readily accessible. If handwashing facilities are not available, provide antiseptic hand cleanser or towelettes until employees can wash their hands as soon as is feasible.
Wash hands regularly, with water and soap or hand cleanser.
Ensure employees wash their hands or any area of the body with water as soon as feasible after removal of gloves, or after body contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials.
Wash hands after wearing gloves, or touching anything you don't feel 100% it is safe to touch.
Eating, drinking, smoking, applying cosmetics, applying lip balm, and or handling contact lenses are prohibited in your tattoo area.
You do not want to ingest any foreign matter accidentally
What happens to your body when you get a tattoo?
The body's circulatory system and lymphatic system respond.
What is the function of the lymphatic system?
To prevent infection
What is the function of the circulatory system?
To provide blood and nourishment to implement the healing process.
Why does it get warm around the area you have just tattooed?
Extra blood in the area.
What is the first phase of the healing process?
Recreate barrier integrity. This happens with scab formation.
Why would a client bruise?
Sometime an older client may bruise because the skin is more fragile and prone to bruise or tear easily.
Once the skin has reformed its surface barrier, what happens next?
The basal cells speed up reproduction. The skin at the below the basal layer seems intently focused on replacing the damaged tissue.
When is healing complete?
When the new cells reach the surface.
What are factors that determine healing time?
Age, health of the client.
Clients in their 20's heal rapidly, why?
The rate of cellular turnover is greatest within this age period
Can tattooing lead to skin cancer?
There is no evidence to support this.
Should you tattoo over skin cancers?
No--you should not.
Skin cancer is now the most common cancer in human beings, true or false.
What are some common forms of skin cancer?
Basal Cell Carcinoma - squamous cell carcinoma - and melanoma
What are the hallmarks of Melanoma?
They typically appear as flat or raised pigmented lesions--irregular notched borders, multiple colors and are greater than 6mm in diameter.
Basal cell carcinoma is characterized by...
a papule growing on the skin. The papule is usually pealy white or translucent with fine telangiectasia growing over it. This type of tumor may frequently ulcerate in the center.
Where is the most common site for the Basal cell carcinoma?
The nose, but they also commonly occur on the head and neck, and may be anywhere on the body.
What are characteristics of Squamous cell carcinoma?
They often start as persistently red and scaly distinct flat lesions. As the tumor begins to grow deeply into the skin, the skin becomes raised vursus the normal adjacent skin.
Where are common sites to find Squamou Cell Carcinoma?
The head, neck and arms.
How was laser tattoo removal performed in early treatments (between 1960 and 1980)?
Lasers, ruby and carbon dioxide (CO2) heat the skin destroying the epidermis and dermis to allow elimination of tattoo pigment, often leading to scarring.
Most tattoo pigment in the skin is found within cells known as resting or tissue macrophages. What happens when the particles absorb laser light?
steam bubbles rapidly arise, creating a shock wave which ruptures the pigment particles with great force.
Professional tattoos applied with a tattoo machine typically hold more ink and usually take longer (more treatments) to remove than amateur tattoos...True or False?
Every tattoo is an individual case and some tattoos are very resistant to laser tattoo removal. True or False?
Because tattoos are created with many colors multiple lasers may be required--true or false.
Can yellows be removed?
Often yellows are often impossible to lighten.
Does it hurt to have tattoos removed by laser?
Yes, often times it is said to hurt more than receiving a tattoo.
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