person or thing eg dog, cat, school, man, woman,teacher
Special word used for a person place or organisation. E.g Cathy, British Council, Qatar, Doha
Things we can count e.g pen, boy, table
substances, concepts we can't divide into separate things eg milk, happiness, money, luggage, gas
uncountable and countable nouns
sometimes nouns can be countable and uncountable eg hair, light, noise, paper, time, work
describes a noun eg My dog is big. I like big dogs
this/that (singular), these/those (plural)
my, your, his, its, our, your, their -modify the noun following it to show possession. It's my bag.
I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they
describes how something is done eg She walked carefully, He was extremely happy,
join words and phrases eg and, but, yet
words that connects a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence eg with, behind, during ect
require an object to make sense Cathy takes aspirin for her headaches. Takes is a transitive verb because takes has no meaning without its direct object aspirin
do not need a direct object to make them meaningful eg Cathy teaches.
auxiliary verbs (helping verb) (be, do, have)
teams upp with other verbs to complete a verb phrase eg I am going to Greece for my holiday.
modals (can, could, may, might, would, will, should, shall, ought to, must)
used to express obligation, necessity, possibility, willingness, ability or probability
describe a state (things that stay the same) and not an action eg love, hate. Never used in continuous form
used to indication an action, process or sensation eg The man was running down the road.
used with have/has or had to make perfect tenses eg I have worked in Doha for eight months. (present perfect simple. I have been working in Doha for eight months. (present perfect continuous) I had worked in Doha for eight months before I moved to Oman. (past perfect)
base verb (infinite without to)
form of verb without any endings (s, ing, ed,)
verb ending in ing to form continuous form eg singing, being, teaching
We sometimes change the tense of the reported clause by moving it back one tense. For example, present simple goes back one tense to past simple. We call this change "backshift".
putting the agent (the doer) as the subject of the verb
Putting the object of the action before the verb and possibly not mentioning the agent (doer) at all
a word ending in ing that is made from a verb and acts like a noun eg I like swimming.
defining relative clause
gives us information about things, people, possessions, places and times using a relative pronoun
non-defining relative clause
give us extra information about someone or something