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25 terms

chapter's 1-10 tricky Vocab

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absolute threshold
What is the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus?
action Potential
What is the term for the brief electrical charge that travels down an axon?
chromosomes
What are the threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes?
extinction
What is the term for the diminishing of a conditioned response?
Adrenal glands
What is the pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine and help arouse the body in times of stress?
Algorithm
What is a methodical, logical rule that guarantees solving a particular problem?
Belief perseverance
what is the clinging of one's initial conceptions after the basis of which they were formed has been discredited?
Binocular cues
What are the depth cues that depend on the use of two eyes such as: retinal disparity and convergence?
Law of effect
What is Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by an unfavorable consequence will become less likely?
Bottom-up processing
What is the term for analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information?
Brocca's area
What is the area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech?
Control condition
What is the condition in an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment and serves as a comparison?
Circadian rhythm
What are the regular bodily rhythms (i.e., temperature, wakefulness) that occur in a 24-hour cycle?
Cones
What are the receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina that function in daylight and detect fine detail and color
Conservation
What is Piaget's concept that properties such as volume remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects?
Accommodation
What is adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information?
Correlation coefficient
What is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two factors vary together and thus how well one factor predicts the other?
Cross-Sectional Study
What is the study in which people of different ages are compared with one another?
Crystallized intelligence
What is one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills that tends to increase with age?
Medulla
What is the base of the brainstem that controls heart rate and breathing?
Delta Waves
What is the name for the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep?
Dependant Variable
What is the experimentalental factor that is being measured and that may change in response to the manipulations of the experimenter?
double blind procedure
What is an experimental procedure in which both the subject and the researcher are ignorant about who is getting the treatment or the placebo?
explicit memory
What is the memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare?
false consensus effect
What is the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behavior?