15 terms

Volcano Vocabulary

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Volcano
An opening in the Earth's crust from which lava, ash, and hot gases flow or are ejected during an eruption. A usually cone-shaped mountain formed by the materials issuing from such an opening.
Cinder cone
A cone formed around a volcanic vent by fragments of lava thrown out during eruptions
Shield volcano
a broad, domed volcano with gently sloping sides
Composite volcano (stratovolcano)
a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash
Caldera
a depression created after a volcano empties most of the contents of its magma chamber in an explosive eruption
Crater
formed by the outward explosion of rocks and other materials from a volcano
Lava plateau
a flat, wide surface (plateau) that is formed when lava comes out of the ground and spreads out very quickly
Hot spots
places within the mantle where rocks melt to generate magma
Pillow lava
occurs under water - are erupted at mid-ocean ridges
Pahoehoe lava
has a smooth, billowy, or ropy surface
A'a lava
has a rough, jagged surface
Block lava
has a surface of large angular blocks
Pyroclastic flow
a mixture of hot steam, ash, rock and dust
Lapilli
are fragments 2 mm to 64 mm in diameter
Lava bombs
are >64 mm