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AP Euro U4 Review
Terms in this set (54)
A variety of factors - including nationalism, military plans, the alliance system, and imperial competition - turned a regional dispute in the Balkans into World War.
- Serbian nationalism led to assassination of heir to A-H throne
- Imperial competition between Brit and German navies, dreadnought
- Schlieffen Plan, Rape of 3 Virgins, Entente, Central Powers or Triple Alliance
New technologies confounded traditional military strategies and led to massive troop losses.
- Machine guns, barbed wire
- Poison gas
- Airplanes, tank
The effects of military stalemate and total war led to protest and insurrection in the belligerent nations and eventually to revolutions that changed the international balance of power.
- Russian Revolution
- Kaiser abdicates
- Austria-Hungary collapses
- Ottoman Empire collapses
The war in Europe quickly spread to non-European theaters, transforming the war into a global conflict.
- War in Africa between colonial powers, German colonies overrrun
- US drawn in because of unrestricted submarine warfare
- Arabian peninsula, Lawrence of Arabia, turns Arabs against Turks
- Armenian genocide
- Japanese aggression in the Pacific and on the Japanese mainland
The relationship of Europe to the world shifted significantly with the globalization of the conflict, the emergence of the United States as a world power, and the overthrow of European empires.
- US became financial and diplomatic leader
- Africa moved toward decolonization
- Ottomans lost empire, Germans lost empire, Japanese more powerful
Wilsonian idealism clashed with postwar realities in both the victorious and the defeated states. Democratic successor states emerged from former empires and eventually succumbed to significant political, economic, and diplomatic crises.
The League of Nations, created to prevent future wars, was weakened from the outset by the nonparticipation of major powers, including the United States, Germany, and the Soviet Union.
- Republicans in US prevented the US joining
- Soviets withdrew from war and did not participate in Treaty of Versailles
- Germany not allowed in because of war guilt clause
The Versailles settlement, particularly its provisions on the assignment of guilt and reparations for the war, hindered the German Weimar Republic's ability to establish a stable and legitimate political and economic system.
- Forced to pay reparations, Germany printed money
- Germany's army was limited in size and was weak in being able to control the fascists' rise
- Germany's blame for the war led to the rise of extremist groups
French and British fears of another war, American isolationism, and deep distrust between Western democratic, capitalist nations and the communist Soviet Union allowed fascist states to rearm and expand their territory.
- Brits and French allowed Hitler to make aggressive land grabs
- Hitler's hatred of communism made Allies less fearful of him
- US' abdication of leadership left vacuum
Germany's Blitzkrieg warfare in Europe, combined with Japan's attacks in Asia and the Pacific, brought the Axis powers early victories.
- Germany's drive through Low Countries plus tank warfare allowed quick capture of France
- Stalin's purges allowed German to defeat poorly-led Soviet army
- Japan's conquest of China, Brit colonies and later US with carrier warfare cause quick conquest
American and British industrial, scientific, and technological power and the all-out military commitment of the USSR contributed critically to the Allied victories.
- Russian manpower and human sacrifice (Stalingrad) turned tide of war
- British codebreaking Enigma machine and radar gave them an advantage
- Massive US industrial output turned the tide, Liberty ships
Fueled by racism and anti-Semitism, German Nazism sought to establish a "new racial order" in Europe, which culminated with the Holocaust.
- Psuedo-scientific theories
- Nuremberg Laws
- Kristallnacht, ghettoes
- Work camps, death camps
Despite efforts to maintain international cooperation through the newly created United Nations, deep-seated tensions between the USSR and the West led to the division of Europe, which was referred to in the West as the "Iron Curtain."
- Berlin Blockade
- Stalin's threatening of Greece and Turkey
- Lack of free elections in Eastern Europe
The Cold War played out on a global stage and involved propaganda campaigns; covert actions; limited "hot wars" in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean; and an arms race, with the threat of a nuclear war.
- Korean War/Vietnam War
- Afghanistan War 1979 invasion
The United States exerted a strong military, political, and economic influence in Western Europe, leading to the creation of world monetary and trade systems and geopolitical alliances such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
- IMF - International Monetary Fund
- World Bank
- General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Countries east of the "Iron Curtain" came under the military, political, and economic domination of the Soviet Union within the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) and the Warsaw Pact.
- 1956 Hungarian Revolution
- Brezhnev Doctrine
- 1968 Prague Spring
The collapse of the USSR in 1991 ended the Cold War, and led to the establishment of capitalist economies throughout Eastern Europe. Germany was reunited, the Czechs and Slovaks parted, Yugoslavia dissolved, and the European Union was enlarged through admission of former Eastern-bloc countries.
- 1989 Berlin Wall comes down
- 1 for 1 mark exchange in reunification of Germany
- "velvet divorce" of Czechs and Slovaks
One of the major continuing challenges to countries in the EU is balancing national sovereignty with responsibilities of membership in an economic and political union.
- Greece's political woes
- Immigration and borders
- Creation of the Euro
- Creation of European parliament
Nationalist and separatist movements, along with ethnic conflict and ethnic cleansing, periodically disrupted the post World War II peace.
- Collapse of Yugoslavia - "greater Serbia", genocide
- Chechnya, breakaway republic in Russia
- Northern Ireland
- Separatists movement - Basque (ETA)
At the end of World War I, President Woodrow Wilson's principle of national self-determination raised expectations in the non-European world for freedom from colonial domination, expectations that led to international instability.
- India wanted independence from UK
- African colonies
The League of Nations distributed former German and Ottoman possessions to France and Great Britain through the mandate system, thereby altering the imperial balance of power, creating a strategic interest in the Middle East and its oil.
- Lebanon and Syria - administered by France
- Palestine - administered by the UK
- Iraq - administered by the UK
Despite indigenous nationalist movements, independence from many African and Asian territories was delayed until the mid- and event late 20th century by the imperial powers' reluctance to relinquish control, threats of interference from other nations, unstable economic and political systems, and Cold War strategic alignments.
- Indian National Congress
- Ho Chi Minh's Viet Minh
- Algeria's National Liberation Front (FLN)
In Russia, World War I exacerbated long-term problems of political stagnation, social inequality, incomplete industrialization, and food and land distribution, all while creating support for revolutionary change.
- Revolution of 1905, Bloody Sunday, Duma
- Large death toll
- Poorly equipped soldiers
Military and worker insurrections, aided by the revived soviets, undermined the Provisional Government and set the state for Lenin's long-planned Bolshevik revolution and establishment of a communist state.
- Lenin's April Theses "Peace, Land, Bread" All Power to the soviets
- Soviet order - elect your officers
- Bread riots, worker strikes
The Bolshevik takeover promoted a protracted civil war between communist forces and their opponents, who were aided by foreign powers.
- Whites aided by Allies, helped the Reds
- Reds led by Trostky on train, held center of country
- Reds had a political plan, committed leadership, Whites not cohesive plan
In order to improve economic performance, Lenin compromised with free-market principles under the New Economic Policy, but after his death Stalin undertook a centralized program of rapid economic modernization.
- NEP, need capitalism to get money for socialism
- Stalin collectivization, millions executed and starved
- Stalin's 5-year plans
Stalin's economic modernization of the Soviet Union came at a high price, including the liquidation of the kulaks, famine in the Ukraine, purges of political rivals, unequal burdens placed on women, and the establishment of an oppressive political system.
- One-party system
- Women, careers and work
Fascist dictatorships used modern technology and propaganda that rejected democratic institutions, promoted charismatic leaders, and glorified war and nationalism to lure the disillusioned.
- Hitler gave everyone a radio to hear his speeches
- Nazi propaganda - Joseph Goebbels
- Hitler Youth
Mussolini and Hitler rose to power by exploiting postwar bitterness and economic instability, using terror and manipulating the fledgling and unpopular democracies in their countries.
- Mussolini's march on Rome, scared king
- Burning of Reichstag, Hitler's Enabling Act
- Police state, Gestapo
Franco's alliance with Italian and German Fascists in the Spanish Civil War - in which the Western democracies did not intervene - represented a testing ground for World War II and resulted in authoritarian rule in Spain from 1936 to the mid- 1970s.
- Socialist gov't elected (Republic) , fascist Franco takes over, war
- Germans and Italians tested new weapons, Guernica bombed
- Stalin ordered the communists to fight the socialists, Franco wins
After failures to establish functioning democracies, authoritarian dictatorships took power in Central and Eastern Europe during the interwar period.
World War I debt, nationalistic tariff policies, overproduction, depreciated currencies, disrupted trade patterns, and speculation created weakness in economies worldwide.
- Germany's war guilt cause them to print money causing hyperinflation and depreciating currency
- Speculation caused stocks to be overpriced
- Overproduction caused an oversupply driving producers (especially farmers) to go out of business
Dependence on post- World War I American investment capital led to financial collapse when, following the 1929 stock market crash, the United States cut off capital flows to Europe.
- Dawes Plan, US loaned money to Germany who paid Britain and France who repaid US
- Cut off after 1929 stock market crash, US abandoned Germany
- Hitler never likes Dawes Plan cause it didn't reduce reparations and put Germany economy under control of foreigners
Despite attempts to rethink economic theories and policies and forge political alliances, Western democracies failed to overcome the Great Depression and were weakened by extremist movements.
- Hitler promised to solve Germany's economic problems and blamed the Jews and communists
- Weimar Republic's political system allowed small parties to enter
- Italy was angry over its failure to get land from Austria in WWI, fascists arose
- Cooperative social action in Scandinavia
- Popular Front policies in France
Marshall Plan funds from the United States financed an extensive reconstruction of industry and infrastructure and stimulated an extended period of growth in Western and Central Europe, often referred to as an "economic miracle," which increased the economic and cultural importance of consumerism.
- Formed to prevent the spread of communism
- West Germany boomed
The expansion of cradle-to-grave social welfare programs in the aftermath of World War II, accompanied by high taxes, became a contentious domestic issue as the budgets of European nations came under pressure in the late 20th century.
- Margaret Thatcher (conservative) leads UK
- Americanization of France (Coca-Cola)
After 1956, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's de-Stalinization policies failed to meet their economic goals within the Soviet Union and promoted revolts in Eastern Europe.
- 1968 Prague Spring
- Solidarity in Poland
Following a long period of economic stagnation, Mikhail Gorbachev's internal reforms of perestroika and glasnost, designed to make the Soviet system more flexible, failed to stave off the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of its hegemonic control over Eastern and Central European satellites.
- 1989 freedom sweeps Warsaw Pact
- 1989 Berlin Wall comes down
- Coup attempt fails, Boris Yeltsin
The rise of new nationalism in Central and Eastern Europe brought peaceful revolution in most countries, but resulted in war and genocide in the Balkans and instability in some former Soviet republics.
The challenge to the certainties of the Newtonian universe in physics opened the door to uncertainty in other fields by undermining faith in objective knowledge, while also providing the knowledge necessary for the development of nuclear weapons and power.
- Werner Heisenberg Werner Heisenberg formulates "uncertainty principle" that challenged the original Newtonian physics. Suggested universe lacked any absolute objective
- Rutherford discovery of atom splitting helping lead to atomic bombs. Neutron has capacity to shatter the nucleus of another atom. Leads to chain reaction in other atoms, leads to development of nuclear bombs.
- Enrico Fermi
- Niels Bohr
Medical theories and technologies extended life but posed social and moral questions that eluded consensus and crossed religious, political, and philosophical perspectives.
- Birth control
- Fertility treatments
- Genetic engineering
Military technologies made possible industrialized warfare, genocide, nuclear proliferation, and the risk of global nuclear war.
- Fallout shelter
The challenges of totalitarianism and communism in Central and Eastern Europe brought mixed responses from Christian churches.
- Dietrich Bonhoffer
- Pope John Paul II
- Martin Niemoller
- Mussolini drew support from the catholic church by making the Lateran Agreement and giving the church heavy financial support
- Catholic and Protestant churches tried to preserve religious life not overthrowing Hitler
Throughout the century, a number of writers challenged traditional literary conventions, questioned Western values, and addressed controversial social and political issues
- Virginia Woolf - internal monologue
- James Joyce - stream of consciousness technique, "Ulysses"
- Franz Kafka, individuals crushed by hostile forces, "The Metamorphosis"
New movements in the visual arts, architecture and music demolished existing aesthetic standards, explored subconscious and subjective states, and satirized Western society and its values.
- Functionalism was the buildings made to serve the purpose for which they were built. Le Corbusier was the champion of modernism which said, "A house is a machine for living"
- Dadaism were anti-art people who were appalled by the modern art that showed war made life meaningless so art should be as well. Surrealism (Salvador Dali) was a fanatic worlds of wild dreams and images of unconsciousness that was influenced by Freudian phycology.
- Igor Stravinsky (The Rite of the Spring), Alban Berg (Wozzeck) and Arnold Schonberg who abandoned traditional harmony and tonality.
World War I created a "lost generation," fostered disillusionment and cynicism, transformed the lives of women, and democratized societies.
- Remarque's "All Quiet on the Western Front"
- Rosie the Riveter
- People more equal, UK, Soviet Union
World War II decimated a generation of Russian and German men, virtually destroyed European Jewry, forced large-scale ethnic migrations, and undermined prewar class hierarchies.
- Destroyed upper and middle classes in Russia
- Jews headed to Palestine
- Maybe 25 million Russians died, many Germans and French
Mass production, new food technologies, and industrial efficiency increased disposable income and created a consumer culture in which greater domestic comforts, such as electricity, indoor plumbing, plastics, and synthetic fibers became available.
- Washing machine
- Vacuum cleaner
During world wars, women became increasingly involved in military and political mobilization, as well as in economic production.
- Women worked in war factories, "Rosie the Riveter"
- Women worked as war nurses, military secretaries
In Western Europe through the efforts of feminists, and in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union through government policy, women finally gained the vote, greater educational opportunities, and access to professional careers, even while continuing to face social inequalities.
- 70% of Soviet doctors were women
- Simone de Beauvoir argued men had dominance through education and marriage, and fought against this ideal.
- NOW (National Organization of Women) gained influence throughout Europe and the US, growing to 40,000 members in less than 10 years.
New modes of marriage, partnership, motherhood, divorce, and reproduction gave women more options in their personal lives.
- Divorce more readily available
- Daycare allowed mothers to work
- Birth control and abortion
Women attained high political office and increased their representation in legislative bodies in many nations.
- Margaret Thatcher - first female Prime Minister of Great Britain - Conservative Party
- Mary Robinson - first female President of Ireland - Labour Party
- Edith Cresson - first female Prime Minister of France - Socialist Party
- Angela Merkel - first female Chancellor of Germany - Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Green parties in Western and Central Europe challenged consumerism, urged sustainable development, and by the late 20th century, cautioned against globalization.
- Slow food movement in Italy
- Social justice
- Gender equity
Intellectuals and youth reacted against perceived bourgeois materialism and decadence, most significantly with the revolts of 1968.
- The "May events" began when a group of students dismayed by conservative university policies and inspired by New Left ideals occupied buildings at the University of Paris. Violent clashes with the police followed.
- Counterculture protests generated a great deal of excitement and trained a generation of activists (American Weather Underground, Italian Red Brigades, and West Germany Red Army Faction). Lifestyle rebellions involving sex, drugs, and rock music expanded the boundaries of acceptable personal behavior, but they hardly overturned the existing system.
- In western European and North American cities, students and sympathetic followers organized massive antiwar demonstrations and then extended their protests to support colonial independence movements, demand an end to the nuclear arms race, and call for world peace and liberation from social conventions of all kinds.
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