Terms in this set (30)
Freedman's Bureau (1865-1872)
An agency created by the government that helped newly freed slaves find jobs, homes, education, and better lives
17th President of the United States
10% Plan and Wade-Davis Bill
The Wade-Davis Bill was far stricter than Lincoln's 10% Plan and required 50 percent of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-Confederates to vote for a new state constitution.
A faction of the Republican party that championed civil rights for blacks. This faction was in control of the congressional Reconstruction.
Oppressive laws aimed at segregating the Black population and regulating their affairs. Blacks were forbidden to serve on a jury, vote, or rent or lease land. They had to sign annual labor contracts and were severely punished if they were violated.
People who rented plots of land and farmed them in exchange for shares of the crop - led to debt and poverty
Civil Rights Bill (1866)
This act pronounced that all African Americans were U.S citizens and tried to prohibit southern black codes.
Sen. Charles Sumner
The leading Radical Republican in the Senate from Massachusetts.
Rep. Thaddeus Stevens
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives during Abraham Lincoln's presidency, fought to abolish slavery and helped draft the 14th Amendment during Reconstruction.
Military Reconstruction Act (1867)
- New governments had to be elected by both Blacks and Whites
- The former Confederate states were divided into five military districts and placed under martial law
- Military Reconstruction ended with the Compromise of 1877 and the election of Rutherford B. Hayes
Southern conservatives who took control of the states' governments as the Radical Republicans were losing influence
A nickname southern Democrats gave to southern Republicans who were in control of the government during Reconstruction
A nickname southern Democrats gave to northern newcomers who led the hated Republican governments during Reconstruction
Texas v. White
Texas claimed that bonds of the United States was their property following the succession. Texas, however, never left the union of the United States because a state couldn't secede from the union. Any bonds sold by Texas during the war were invalid, only bonds sold previous to the war by Texas were valid.
13th, 14th, and 15th amendments
- 13th: This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
- 14th: This amendment declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
- 15th: This amendment declares citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or previous condition of servitude
Ku Klux Klan
Secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights
In response to terrorist attacks by the KKK, congress passed a set of laws that made voter intimidation illegal.
Denying blacks the right to vote by using intimidation, fraud, and trickery
Civil Rights Act of 1875
This act guaranteed blacks equal accommodations in public places like hotels, railroads and theaters and prohibited courts from excluding them from juries.
Compromise of 1877
It stated that Hayes would be president over Tilden on the condition that he would build a southern transcontinental railroad and remove federal support for the Republicans in the South.
Jim Crow laws
Segregated Blacks and White- "separate but equal" segregation laws enacted in the Southern and border states
Plessy v. Ferguson
A Louisiana man by the name of Homer Plessy, who was seven eighths white, sat in an all white railway car and was arrested. The court ultimately upheld Louisiana's state law that permitted "separate, but equal" facilities. The impact of this court case was massive; it set precedent that segregation was acceptable by law.
What years mark the beginning and end of Reconstruction?
1863 → 1877
What were the greatest challenges that faced the U.S. at the end of the Civil War?
- Integrating the South back into the Union
- Relocating 4 million ex-slaves
- Organizing politics (Republicans vs Democrats)
Did Reconstruction fulfill the promise of the Civil War, and was the War worth the costs?
- Reconstruction did not fulfill the promise of the Civil War. Freed African Americans were basically reduced back to slaves with the emergence of sharecropping.
- The war was worth the costs, as it abolished slavery and unified the nation over time.
What were the successes of Reconstruction, and what were the failures?
- Reunification of the Union
- Expansion of Southern and Northern economy
- Education was provided to everyone
- Freedom of blacks
- Enforcement Act of 1870
- Rising of the Ku Klux Klan and Jim Crow laws
- Establishment of poverty
- Industrialization in the South was slow
- Sharecropping and black codes emerged
- Corruption and taxation
Why did Reconstruction ultimately come to an end?
- Reconstruction ended because of the compromise of 1877. It was an unwritten agreement that stated Hayes would win the presidency, if he were to remove troops from southern states
- Reconstruction also failed because many people in the south did not want to accept a life different from what they were used to
- Northerners were also tired of trying to enforce rules upon the South
What issues were left unresolved by Reconstruction?
- Civil rights for blacks
- The Ku Klux Klan
With the end of Reconstruction, what steps did the South take to reassert its control over the black population?
- Black codes
- Jim Crow Laws
If you had been in government in 1865, what steps would you have taken to best reunite the nation?
- I would have allowed the recently freed slaves to occupy abandoned areas in the South, to avoid poverty and homelessness
- I would not have pardoned political and military leaders in the South. Their induction into the union only made things worse.
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