208 terms

A&P

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Urinary (Excretory) System
Removes waste from blood and regulates composition and volume of body fluids
Endocrine System
Integrates and regulates body functions through chemical messengers called hormones
Lymphatic System
Returns excess tissue fluids to bloodstream and provides protection against infection
Skeletal System
Provides support and protection for soft tissues and produces all types of blood cells
Respiratory System
Exchanges gases between atmosphere and blood
Digestive System
Converts food molecules into forms that may be absorbed by the body
Nervous System
Coordiantes body's responses to various types of stimulation
Muscular System
Maintains posture and produces most body heat
Cardiovascular System
Transports nutrients and waste products throughout the body
Reproductive System
Produces adn maintains gametes and supports the development of a new individual
Integumentary System
Provides protective covering for body tissues and helps to regulate body temperature
Adrenal Glands
Endocrine System
Arteries
Cardiovascular System
Lead away from the heart
Bones
Skeletal System
Brain
Nervous System
Cranial and Dorsal Cavities
Bronchioles
Respiratory System
Thoracic and Ventral Cavities
Esophagus
Digestive System
Thoracic and Ventral Cavities
Gallbladder
Digestive System
Abdominopelvic and Ventral Cavities
Heart
Cardiovascular System
Thoracic and Ventral Cavities
Kidneys
Urinary System
Large Intestine
Digestive System
Abdominopelvic and Ventral Cavities
Visceral Peritoneum
Ligaments
Skeletal System
Liver
Digestive System
Abdominopelvic and Ventral Cavities
Visceral Peritoneum
Lungs
Respiratory System
Thoracic and Ventral Cavities
Visceral Pleura
Lymph Nodes
Lymphatic System
Ovaries
Endocrine and Reproductive Systems
Abdominopelvic and Ventral Cavities
Visceral Peritoneum
Pancreas
Endocrine and Digestive Systems
Abdominopelvic and Ventral Cavities
Regulates blood pressure
Parathyroid Glands
Endocrine System
Pineal Gland
Endocrine or Nervous System
Cranial and Dorsal Cavities
Pituitary Gland
Endocrine or Nervous System
Cranial and Dorsal Cavities
Prostate Gland
Reproductive System (male)
Abdominopelvic and Ventral Cavities
Salivary Glands
Digestive System
Skeletal Muscles
Muscular System
Skin
Integumentary System
Small Intestine
Digestive System
Abdominopelvic and Ventral Cavities
Spinal Cord
Nervous System
Vertebral Canal and Dorsal Cavity
Spleen
Lymphatic System
Abdominopelvic and Ventral Cavities
Stomach
Digestive System
Abdominopelvic and Ventral Cavities
Visceral Peritoneum
Tendons
Muscular System
Testes
Endocrine and Reproductive Systems
Thymus Gland
Lymphatic and Endocrine Systems
Thoracic and Ventral Cavities
Visceral Pleura
Thyroid Gland
Endocrine System
Trachea
Respiratory System
Thoracic and Ventral Cavities
Ureters
Urinary System
Abdominopelvic and Ventral Cavities
Urethra
Reproductive (male) and Urinary System
Uterus
Reproductive System (female)
Abdominopelvic and Ventral Cavities
Veins
Cardiovascular System
Thoracic Cavity
Parietal Pleura
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Parietal peritoneum
Coronal or Frontal
Divides body into anterior and posterior sections
Median or Midsagittal
Divides body into equal left and right halves
Parasagittal
Divides body into unequal left and right sections
Transverse or Horizontal
Divides body into superior and inferior sections
Dorsal Cavity
Cranial and Spinal Cavities
Ventral Cavity
Thoracic and Abdominalpelvic Cavities
Pleura
Thoracic Cavity
Peritoneum
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Parietal
Lining
Visceral
Covers
Abdominal region
Celiac
Abdominal wall near thigh
Inguinal
Ankle
Tarsal
Area between reproductive organs and anus
Perineal
Arm (upper)
Brachial
Armpit
Axillary
Back (lower region or loin)
Lumbar
Back (upper)
Dorsum
Breast
Mammary
Buttocks
Gluteal
Cheek
Buccal
Chest
Pectoral
Chest (center)
Sternal
Chin
Mental
Ear
Otic
Elbow
Cubital
Elbow (region in front)
Antecubital
Eye cavity
Orbital
Fingers and toes
Digital
Forearm
Antebrachium
Forehead
Frontal
Foot
Pedal
Foot (sole)
Plantar
Hand (front)
Palmar
Head
Cephalic
Head (lower posterior region)
Occipital
Hip
Costal
Knee (back)
Popliteal
Knee (front)
Patellar
Leg (lower)
Crural
Leg (upper)
Femoral
Mouth
Oral
Navel
Umbilical
Neck
Cervical
Nose
Nasal
Posterior region between hipbones
Sacral
Reproductive organs
Genital
Ribs
Costal
Shoulder (point of)
Acromial
Spine
Vertebral
Wrist
Carpal
Anatomy
The study of structure (form) and how its built not where its located
Physiology
The study of the function
Levels of organization
Atoms
Molecules
Macromolecules
Organelles
Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organ Systems
Organisms
Homeostasis
Maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment during exposure to a changing external enviornment.
It happens all the time
Stress
Any threat to homeostasis
Extracelular Fluid
Fluid that surrounds the cells in our body
Hydrostatic Pressure
Pressure a liquid exerts (blood stream)
Metabolism
All of the chemical reactions in an organism that support life
Homeostatic Mechanism
Self-regulating control systems
Receptors, Control Center, Effectors
Receptors
Provide info about specific conditions
Pick up and send signals
Responses to stimulus
Control Center
Set point
May or may not be nervous system
Effectors
Cause the responses that alter conditions in the internal environment
Negative Feedback
Very common
Reverse a trend to maintain homeostasis
Positive Feedback
Very uncommon
Continue a trend away from homeostasis
Ex. childbirth
Very specific, short-lived functions
Appendicular Portion
Appendages
Arms and legs (limbs)
Axial Portion
Head, neck and trunk
Dorsal Cavity
Back side
Includes the cranial cavity and vertebral canal
Cranial Cavity
Brain cavity
Vertebral Canal
Spinal cavity
Contains the spinal cord
Ventral Cavity
Stomach side (front)
Throacic and abdominopelvic cavities
Diaphram seperates thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Mediastinum
Region between the lungs
Contains the heart, esophagus, trachea and thymus
Pleural Cavity
Where your lungs are
Adominal Cavity
Includes the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidnesy, and large and small intestines
Pelvic Cavity
Includes the terminal end of the large intestine, urinary bladder, and reproductive internal organs
Parietal Membranes
Lines body cavities
Inside the cavity
Visceral Membranes
Cover organs within body cavities
Outside the cavity
Pleural Membranes
Found within the thoracic cavity
Chest
Pleural cavity
Potential space between the parietal and visceral pleura membranes
Serous Fluid
Fluid that seperates the Parietal and visceral pleura
Peritoneal cavity
Potential space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum
Serous Fluid
Fluid that sperates the parietal and visceral peritoneum
Anatomical Position
Standing erect
Facing forward
Upper limbs at sides with palms forward
Superior
Top of head
Inferior
Bottom of person
Anterior (Ventral)
Front
Belly
Posterior (Dorsal)
Back
Spine
Medial
Middle of body
Lateral
Outside
Ipsilateral
Same side of body
Contralateral
Opposite side of body
Proximal
Close
Appendages only
Distal
Far away to attachment point
Appendages only
Superficial
Surface
Layers of tissue
Has to be the same tissue
Peripheral
Blood vessels and nerves only
Deep
Inside
Layers of tissue
Has to be the same tissue
Sagittal
Refers to the lengthwise cut that divides the body into left and right halves
Cross Section
Only for Cylindrical organs (blood vessels)
Cut across the structure horizontally
Oblique Section
Only for Cylindrical organs (blood vessels)
An angular cut
Longitudinal Section
Only for Cylindrical organs (blood vessels)
Lengthwise cut
Abdominal
Region between the thorax and pelvis
Sural
Calf of the leg
Dermatology
Study of skin and its diseases
Endocrinology
Study of hormones, hormone-secreting glands, and associated diseases
Epidemiology
Study of the factors that contribute to determining the distribution and frequency of health-related conditions within a defined human population
Gastroenterology
Study of the stomach and intestines, as well as their diseases
Geriatrics
Branch of medicine dealing with older individuals and their medical problems
Gerontology
Study of the precess of aging and the various problems of older individuals
Gynecology
Study of the femal reproductive system and its diseases
Hematology
Study of blood and blood diseases
Histology
Study of the structure and function of tissues
Immunology
Study of the body's resistance to disease
Neonatology
Study of newborns and the treatment of their disorders
Nephrology
Study of the structure function, and diseases of the kidneys
Neurology
Study of the nervous system in health and disease
Obstetrics
Branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy and childbirth
Oncology
Study of cancers
Ophthalmology
Study of the eye and eye diseases
Orthopedics
Branch of medicine dealing with the muscular and skeletal systems and their problems
Otolaryngology
Study of the ear, throat, larynx and their diseases
Pathology
Study of structural and functional changes within the body associated with disease
Pediatrics
Branch of medicine dealing with children and their diseases
Pharmocology
the study of drugs and their uses in the treatment of diseases
Podiatry
study of the care and treatment of feet
Psychiatry
Branch of medicine dealing with the mind and its disorders
Radiology
Study of x-rays and radioactive substances, as well as their uses in diagnosing and treating diseases
Toxicology
study of poisonous substances and their effects upon body parts
Urology
Branch of medicine dealing with the urinary system, apart from the kidneys and the male reproductive system, and their diseases
Cell Membrane
Made of phospholipids
Cytoplasm
Contains organelles suspended in a liquid called cytosol
Nucleus
Enclosed by nuclear envelope
Organelles
Provide specific functions such as dismantling debris, extraction energy from nutrients, or packaging secretions
Cell membrane structure
Includes phopholipid bilayer, hydrophobic "tails" (water-insoluble, fatty acid chains) and hydrophilic "heads" (water soluble)
General characteristics of cell membrane
maintains integrity of cell
Controls entry and exit (selectively permeable)
Signal transduction - allows the cell to recieve and respond to incoming messages
Cholesterol
Helps stabilize the cell membrane by not allowing water-soluble substances to enter into the membrane
Proteins
Allow things to go from one side to another
Dont have to be open
Receptor Proteins
Receive and transmit messages into a cell
Selective channels
Integral Proteins
A protein that spans the membrane
Forms pores, channels, and carriers in cell membrane
Transduce signals
Enzymes
Protein that catalyzes a specific biochemical reaction
Catalyze chemical reactions
Cell adhesion molecules
Holds the cells together
Cell surface proteins (glycoproteins)
Establish self
Physical mechanisms
Passive
Cellular energy is not required
Across = through
Simple Diffusion
Energy of molecular motion responsible
Differences in concentration establisha gradient
Movement is with (or down) concentration gradient (drives diffusion)
Diffusional equilibrium may be achieved physiological "steady state" more likely
Factors that influence simple diffusion
Distance: farther = slower
Thicker the cell membrane the slower
The bigger the gradient = faster
The higher the temp the faster
Facilitated diffusion
Specialized protein "carriers" required
Movement with concentration gradient
Saturation is possible
Can only move down a concentration gradient
Osmosis
Diffusion of water molecules
Passive
Only water can go back and forth
Selectively-permeable membrane required
Osmotic pressure
releative concentration of the solutes
Ability to life volume of water
greater (solutes) = greater osmotic pressure
Relative solutions
Important to cells
Ex. Blood cells
Hypertonic
Relatively higher osmotic pressure
More solutes
Hypotonic
Relatively lower osmotic pressure
Less solutes
Isotonic
similar osmotic pressure
equal amounts or same amount of solutes
Filtration
Molecules forced through porous membranes
Concentration difference is not important; size is
Hydrostatic forces apply - presure pushes the molecules out
Active transport
Movement against concentration grandient
Specific carrier proteins "pump" necessary
Edocytosis
Sac-like vesicle is formed from cell membrane
Substance does not technically cross cell membrane
Pinocytosis
Taking in a liquid
Phagocytosis
Taking in a solid
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
bring in a specific cell needed at the time
Exocytosis
Expels solids or liquids
Transcytosis
Enters on side of the cell and exits the other side