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67 terms

Organic Chemistry

STUDY
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Formaldehyde
methanal
Chloroform
trichloromethane
Cracking
bond fission
when there is a double and triple bond
1 carbon is numbered by double bond
Homologous series
same type of organic molecule
Chain isomer
skeletal isomer when difference in structure of chain
Position isomer
Difference in position of he same functional group
Metamerism
unequal distribution of C around functional group
Tautomerism
Shifting of proton
Cis
functional group on same side
trans
functional group on different side
Fredrick Wohler
Produced Urea from ammonium cyanate
Thermal cracking
breaking of chains at high temperature
Catalytic cracking
Higher carbons cracked at lower pressure and temperature by using a catalyst
Catalyst used in Catalytic Cracking
SiO2 Al2O3 produces gas
Steam cracking
lower unsaturated hydrocarbons
Sabatier Sendren
Alkenes or Alkynes Hydrogenated catalyzed by Ni forms Alkanes
When Alkyl Hallides react with Zn they form
Alkanes
Alkyl Hallides reaction catalyzed by
aqueous acid
Decarboxilation of Monocarboxylic acid
When Na salts of fatty acids are heated with soda lime: produced by soaking CaO with caustic soda and drying the solution loose Co2 and form alkane
Clemmensen or Wolfe Kishner reduction
Alkanes formed from Ketones or Aldehydes
Clemmesen
Ketone reduced catalyzed by Zn-Hg/HCl
Wolfe Kishner
Aldehyde reduced by N2H4/KOH
Grignard reagent
MgBrR reacted with H2O produces Alkane
Catalytic oxidation of Alkane
catalyzed by Cu
Oxidation of Alkane
1st produces Alchohol then Formaldehyde then fomic acid then CO2 H2O
Nitration of Alkane
CH4+HONO2→CH3NO2+H2O
Halogenation of Alkane
happens in 3 steps due to UV light
Olefins
Alkenes
Dehydrohalogentaion of an alkyl hallide
produces Alkenes
Catalayzed by KOH or alchohol
Dehydration of alcohol
Forms Alkenes catalyzed Al2O3 or H2SO4 and H3PO4
Dehalogenation of Vicinal Dihallides
Alkenes produced Catalzed by Zinc Dust and anhydrous solvent
Partial hydrogenation of Alkynes
produces cis and trans Alkenes
Partial hydrogenation of Alkyne produces Cis when catalysed with
Pd(BaSO4)
Partial hydrogenation of Alkyne produces Cis when catalyzed with
Na liquid or NH3
Markowinovs rule
governs halogenation of Alkenes
Alkene+Sulphuric Acid
produces ether when heated forms alcohol
When HOX added to Alkene
Haloalchohol formed
Epoxide
H2C-CH2
I
O
Epoxide formed
Alkene and O passed over silver oxide
Gringard Reagent
MgBrCh3
Baeyers Reagent
1% KMnO4
Vicinal Gylcols
H2COH-CH2OH
Vicinal Glycols
formed when alkenes react with mild oxidizing reagent
Combustion of Alkenes
more direct than Alkanes
Acetalyne
C2H2 or ethene
only alkyne with odor
Alkenes
do have smells
Lindards catalyst
used in partial hydration of alkynes
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
chain
4n+2e
aromatic hydrocarbon
Amine
basic
alkyne
acidic
Used in reforming
(C2H5)4 Pb TEL
Octane number of 1
isooctane
Used in dehydration of alcohols to form alkenes
H2HSO4
AlO
3PO4
Used to dehalogenate trihallides to for alkynes
Zn+ or Mg+ active metals
Used to Dehydorhallogenate to form alkenes and alkynes
KOH, alcohol, or bases
Used in decarboxillalation to form alkanes
CaO
Used to make alkanes from ketones
HCl or Zn/Hg
used to make alkanes from aldehydes
KOH or N2H4
used to make alkanes from grignsrd reagents
ether
catalyzes the hydrogenation of alkalynes to produce alkalenes
linards reagent
used for catalytic combustion of alkanes
Cu
Used in the dehalogenation of tetrahallides
alcohol
catalyzes hallogenation
CCl4
used to oxidize alkenes
AgO
oxidizes alkynes
KMnO4