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Science STAAR Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy (Chemistry)
8th Grade Science Texas STAAR Prep
Terms in this set (41)
Smallest part or unit of matter.
• Positive Charge...
• In the nucleus...
• Has mass...
• The atomic number...
• Neutral charge.
• In the nucleus.
• Has mass.
• Mass number minus atomic number equals neutrons.
• Negative charge.
• Found on the energy levels.
• Smallest subatomic particle.
• Very small mass.
• Electrons on the outer most energy level.
• Used in bonding.
Two or more elements combining to make a new substance.
Elements give up/or share valence electrons.
Characteristics of Metals
(7 properties & location)
• Good conductor of heat/electricity.
• Reacts with acid.
• Metallic luster (shiny).
• Has 1,2 or 3 Valence Electrons.
• Gives up electrons when bonding.
• Located on the left side of Periodic Table.
Characteristics of Nonmetals
(6 properties & location)
• Poor conductor of heat/electricity.
• Does NOT reacts with acid.
• Non- Metallic luster (dull).
• Has 5,6,7 or 8 Valence Electrons.
• Gains electrons when bonding.
• Located on right side of staircase.
Metalloids (definition & location )
• Characteristics of both metals and non-metals.
• Located on the staircase.
Main Group Trend
• As you move across the main groups you add one valence electron.
• Tall columns.
• Labeled with Roman numerals or letter A.
• Tells number of Valence Electrons.
• Vertical columns.
• Called families.
• Share similar characteristics.
• Tell number of energy levels.
• Do NOT share similar characteristics.
• As you move down periods you add an energy level.
• Period number is equal to thenumber of energy levels.
• Amount of mass in a given volume.
• Density equals mass divided by volume.
• As you move down the periods, the elements get more dense.
• Most dense elements are located at the bottom of the PT.
• Metals- Most reactive at BOTTOM. Get more reactive as they go down the group and less reactive as you move across main groups. (Francium is the most reactive metal).
• Nonmetals- Most reactive at the TOP. Get less reactive as you go down the group and move in toward the middle (Flouring is the most reactive nonmetal)
• All elements want 0 or 8 valence electrons.
• They will give up or steal VE to become stable.
• Closer to stable (or full outer shell), the more reactive the element is.
• Main Groups I and VII are most reactive.
Name of the Main Groups
I. Alkali Metals.
II. Alkaline Earth Metals.
III. Boron Family.
IV. Carbon Family.
V. Nitrogen Family.
VI. Oxygen Family.
VIII. Noble gasses.
• Elements in Main group VIII or group 18.
• Have a full outer energy level so they are stable.
• They are nonreactive.
• "Kings" of the PT...they have everything they want so they will not give up VE or take VE.
How is the Periodic Table arranged?
• PT is arranged by increasing Atomic Number.
• Number of Protons.
• Small number in the element key.
• An average mass of that element.
• Located at the bottom of the element key.
• Written as it appears on the PT (with the decimal).
• Atomic mass rounded to the nearest whole number.
• Sum of Protons plus Neutrons.
How do you find neutrons?
• Mass number minus.
-Atomic Number = equals.
How do you find electrons in a NEUTRAL atom?
• Neutral atoms have NO CHARGE so
• Protons = Electrons.
• Two or more elements chemically bonding to make a NEW SUBSTANCE with NEW PROPERTIES.
• Smallest part of a compound.
• H20 = 1 molecule of water.
• CO2 = 1 molecule of carbon dioxide.
• Large number in front of an element or compound.
• Tells how many molecules AND used to find atoms of each element present.
• CAN be changed.
3 molecules of H2O (water)
6 atoms of Hydrogen & 3 atoms of water
• Small number behind an element.
• Only applies to the element in front of it.
• Tells number of atoms of THAT element.
• Can NOT be changed.
Law of Conservation of Mass
• Mass can NOT be created or destroyed only changed.
• Number of atoms for each element must be equal on both product and reactant side.
• Demonstrates law of conservation of mass.
• Equal number of ATOMS of each element on each side of the equation.
• Can only change coefficients to balance.
• Must create a NEW substance with NEW PROPERTIES.
• Must have a yield sign.
• Must contain the same elements on both sides of the equations.
• Elements or compounds that are created in the reaction.
• On the right of the arrow.
• The final PRODUCT.
• (the cake).
• Elements or compound used to start the reaction.
• On the left of arrow.
• Like the ingredients to make a cake.
• equals or creates.
• Model of an atom.
• Protons & Neutrons in the nucleus.
• Energy levels around nucleus.
• Electron placement.
a. 2 on 1st level.
b. 8 on 2nd level.
c. 8 on 3rd level.
(2 main & 5 evidences)
• NEW substance is created with NEW properties.
o Bubbles, fizzing, smoke.
o Precipitate (new solid).
o Color change.
o Temperature change.
• Chemical reaction in which energy is ABSORBED in the reaction.
• Feels Cold.
• Energy written as a REACTANT.
• EX- Ice Pack.
• Chemical reaction in which energy is RELEASED.
• Can be released as heat, light or sound .
• Written as a PRODUCT.
• Ex- fireworks, hand warmers, glow sticks.
• Change in which the substances PHYSICAL appearance changes or state of matter changes.
• EX- melting ice, tearing paper, breaking a pencil.
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