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SOCI Exam 4 Chpt 11, 12, 13
Terms in this set (47)
Identify and describe the three types of authority and provide an example of each.
Three types of authority were identified by Max Weber: traditional, rational-legal, and charismatic. Traditional authority is based on custom. Monarchy is an example of traditional authority. Rational-legal authority is based on written rules. Modern constitutional democracies are an example of rational-legal authority. Charismatic authority is based on an individual's outstanding traits, which attract followers. The leadership of Joan of Arc would represent an example of charismatic authority.
What is another name for rational-legal authority?
Max Weber used the term ________ to refer to the transition of authority from a charismatic leader to either a rational-legal authority or traditional authority.
routinization of charisma
In the United States, we elect candidates whom we believe will best represent our interests in state capitals and in Washington, D.C. This is an example of a(n) ________.
What is the basis of universal citizenship?
By birth or naturalization, everyone in the country has the same basic rights.
What is a system of government in which decision-making is vested in a small group of people?
In the United States, which political party is most associated with the working class?
The present two-party system dominating political activity in the United States has been in existence since ________.
The Civil War
What is the key to determining if someone will vote?
The degree to which they believe they have a stake in the political system.
Marcus has not voted for the last fifteen years because he feels that the political system has never done anything positive for him, so his vote really would not affect his life one way or the other. What is the emotional reaction Marcus is experiencing?
According to the functionalist perspective, what keeps the government of the United States from turning against its citizens?
the pluralism in distributing power
What is the three branch system which is designed to ensure that power remains distributed in U.S. government so that no one branch dominates?
Checks and balances
What are the three types of authority?
traditional authority, rational-legal authority, charismatic authority
Frank, Jim, Martha and Louise occupy the same apartment, sharing routine chores such as cooking, cleaning and laundry. Each contributes a share of their earnings to pay utilities and food costs. Sociologists would describe this group as a ________.
In the United States and many other parts of the world, the common practice is for whites to marry whites, African Americans to marry African Americans, and members of specific social classes to marry within their class. This marital practice is called ________.
Why do functionalists argue that the incest taboo is a nearly universal norm?
The incest taboo facilitates the socialization of children and avoids role confusion.
Bertha has just turned 16 and has caught the special interest of her father because she looks just as attractive and sexy as her mother did when they first dated. Bertha's mother has noticed this and now feels like a maid, not a wife and mother. What do sociologists call this condition of a father seeing his daughter as a possible sexual interest, and a wife feeling as though she is a maid, rather than a wife and mother?
What is the single greatest influence of marital homogamy?
Maria and Brian recently gave birth to their first child. Based on sociological findings, what is the likely change in the marital satisfaction that Maria and Brian feel towards one another?
It will decrease
The not-so-empty nest is a phrase that refers to when children ________.
who have moved out as young adults, then return to live with their parents
Although debatable, what does evidence suggest about the emphasis on machismo in Latino families?
It is declining with each new generation.
The percentage of married U.S. women who have never given birth is the lowest among which ethnic or racial group?
Mark and Sally are married, both are working, and they chose not to have children. What classification best fits them?
THey are DINKS.
What qualities do polyandry and polygyny share and how do they differ?
Polyandry and polygyny both refer to mating selection where multiple spouses are permitted. Polyandry refers to a pattern of mate selection where the woman takes on multiple husbands. Polygyny refers to a pattern of mate selection where the man takes on multiple wives.
What is the sandwich generation?
Refers to middle-aged couples who find them selves sandwiched between taking care of kids and their aging parents
Who was the sociologist who observed that industrialized nations are becoming credential societies?
What is the central sociological principle of education as it relates to a nation's needs?
It is a reflection of the nation's culture and economy.
From a functionalist perspective, what is the teaching of knowledge and skills which reinforces positive consequences in students?
Determining which people will enter what occupation is a function of education referred to as ________.
What do conflict theorists believe is the purpose of the hidden curriculum?
It promotes social inequalities
What is the primary reason sociologists study religion?
to study the role that religion plays in people's lives
What are the three elements of religion based on the writings of Emile Durkheim?
beliefs, practices, moral community
What does incorporating religious teachings into criminal law, such as prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages before noon on Sunday, illustrate about religion?
It is a means of social control.
What are the two dysfunctions of religion addressed in the textbook?
religious persecution; war and terrorism
From a symbolic interactionist perspective, what does wearing a cross signify for Christians?
It is a condensed way for the wearer to say, "I am a follower of Jesus Christ."
Marx's notion that religion diverts the thoughts of workers to the afterlife rather than toward rebellion against their worldly oppressors is expressed by his statement ________.
"Religion is ... the opium of the people."
Why is the United States becoming more and more of a credential society?
It is due to industrialization of society
Identify at least three major religions and the symbol that represents each of them.
Christianity is represented by the cross. Islam is represented by the crescent moon and star. Judaism is represented by the Star of David. Hinduism is represented by the cow. Buddhism is represented by the eight-spoked wheel.
Bureaucratic authority and charismatic authority are identical forms of power.
A political gender gap is developing in presidential polls with women being likely to support the Democratic candidate and men supporting the Republican candidate.
In the family men are more likely than women to initiate violence.
The cultural transmission of values is a latent function of education.
Jews, Christians, and Muslims all share a common ground in their religious beliefs which is called a cosmology.
Changes in social organizations, ideologies, conspicuous consumption, and social relationships are attributed to technology.
Changes in social organizations, ideologies, conspicuous consumption, and social relationships is attributed to_________.
What is the primary benefit of technology for the Most Industrialized Nations?
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