10 terms

Pearson Biology Chapter 16

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Evolution
Change over time; the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
Fossil
Preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms
Artificial selection
Selective breeding of plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable traits in offspring
Adaptation
Heritable characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in an environment
Fitness
How well an organism can survive and reproduce in its environment
Natural selection
Process by which organisms are most suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
Biogeography
Study of past and present distribution of organisms
Homologous structures
Structures that are similar in different species of common ancestry
Analogous structures
Body parts that share a common function, but not structure
Vestigial structure
Structure that is inherited from ancestors but has lost much or all of its original function