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World Cultures

I, Robert Nicholas Conda, the creator of the flashcard set "World Cultures", hereby acknowledge that the material contained within the flashcards of the flashcard set "World Cultures" is taken directly from the text of "World History: Patterns of Interaction" and is not intended as my own intellectual property.
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Prehistory
before man started to write
Artifacts
human-made objects
Anthropologist
someone who studies a people's culture
Archaeologist
someone who digs up prehistoric artifacts
Culture
a people's unique way of life
Paleontologist
someone who studies fossils
Hominids
humans and other creatures that walk upright
Mary Leakey
led an expedition to Laetoli looking for clues about human origins and found footprints of australopithecines
Culture
the way people live and work to satisfy their needs
Homo Sapiens
the species name for modern humans
Technology
ways of applying knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet one's needs
Homo Habilis
first to make stone tools
2.5 Million B.C.
beginning of the Stone Age
3,000 B.C.
end of the stone age
8,000 B.C.
when the Paleolithic Age became the Neolithic Age
Nomads
highly mobile people who moved from place to place searching for new sources of food
Hunter-Gatherers
nomadic groups whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods
Neolithic Revolution
the far-reaching changes in human life resulting from farming
Ice Man
Neolithic human discovered near the border of Austria and Italy by two German hikers
Domestication
taming
Jarmo
a site in Northeastern Iraq that was home to the birthplace of agriculture
Catal Huyuk
an agricultural village located on a fertile plain in south-central Turkey
Obsidian
a volcanic glass used to make mirrors, jewelry, and knives
Nile River Valley
river valley that produces wheat, barley, and other crops
Yellow River
river that produces millet
Chang Jiang River Delta
river valey that produces wild rice
Mexico and Central America
produces corns, beans, and squash
Peru
produces tomatoes and potatoes
Slash-and-Burn Farming
farming in which trees or grasses are cut and burned to clear a field
Sumer
one of the first civilizations
Mesopotamia
where Sumer is located
Advanced Cities, Specialized Workers, Complex Institutions, Record Keeping, Improved Technology
Five Characteristics of Civilizations
Specialization
the development of skills in a specific kind of work
Artisans
skilled workers who make goods by hand
Institutions
long-lasting patterns of organization in a community
Scribes
professional record-keepers
Cuneiform
wedge-shaped
Stylus
a scribe's tool, a sharpened reed with a wedgee-shaped point
Bronze Age
the time when people began using bronze, rather than copper and stone, to fashion tools and weapons
Ur
the site of a highly sophisticated civilization in Sumer
Leonard Woolley
an English archaeologist that unraveled the mystery of Ur
Barter
a way of trading goods and services without money
Ziggurat
a pyramid-shaped monument