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GEOL 1340 - Chapter 9 - Quiz
Terms in this set (52)
Iron in Earth's core
Earth's overall density is calculated to be 5.52 grams per cubic centimeter. However, crustal rocks only give densities around 2.9 grams per cubic centimenter. Where is the excess density?
Heat flow, as measured on Earth's surface, is higher along mid-ocean ridges and other volcanically active regions but lower within the interiors of stable continents
Which of the following statements regarding heat flow on Earth is TRUE?
For the figure above, which letter corresponds to the epicenter of the earthquake?
The figure above illustrates the motion of ____________
The bending of seismic waves when passing through Earth's interior is called _________
The bending of seismic waves when passing through Earth's interior is due to changes in wave ____________ when encountering different Earth materials
The Moho is the boundary between the ________ and _________
S-waves slow down because of the presence of a few percent partial melt
What happens to S-waves as they pass through the asthenosphere?
They speed up due to density increases in mantle rock resulting from phase changes in minerals.
What happens to P- and S-waves when encountering transition zones at 400 km and 700 km depths?
S-waves cannot pass through the outer core while P-waves slow down significantly when passing through this layer.
What changes in P- and S-waves occur when encountering the outer core that lead scientists to conclude that this layer is composed of liquid iron?
The upper mantle is composed largely of a rock called ___________
No P-waves are detected by seismometers.
P-wave shadow zones are regions on Earth's surface where...
Circulation of liquid iron in the outer core is thought to be responsible for Earth's _____________
Wegener assembled the continents like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle into a giant supercontinent called...
Assemble these continents into a giant supercontinent.
Weird ice-flow directions of ancient glaciers, as evidenced today on the continents of South America, Africa, India, and Australia, make sense if we...
A cooling, shrinking Earth.
Which of the following does NOT constitute evidence for continental drift?
Lithospheric plates converge along mid-ocean ridges.
Which of the following statements regarding mid-ocean ridges is FALSE?
The Geomagnetic Time Scale indicates numerous reversals in Earth's magnetic field over the last 5 million years.
Which of the following statements regarding reversals in Earth's magnetic field is TRUE?
Polarity reversals in Earth's magnetic field only affect the magnetic inclination, but not the declination, of ancient rocks.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Magnetization of ancient rocks point to various pole positions in the past that are artifacts of continental drift and not because poles actually migrated.
What is going on in the illustration?
Oceanic crust becomes progressively older as we approach a mid-ocean ridge.
Studies of the ocean floor indicate that oceanic crust varies in age from place to place. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Transform plate boundary
Where would you least expect to find active volcanoes?
Crust and solid upper portion of the mantle directly above the asthenosphere
What constitutes the plates of plate tectonics?
Oceanic hot spot
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be a plate boundary?
Only occurs where a continental plate meets an oceanic plate
Which of the following statements regarding convergent plate boundaries is FALSE?
A principle driving force for the movement of lithospheric plates is/are...
Plate tectonics is a process by which lithospheric plates are created along mid-ocean ridges and afterwards recycled back into the mantle along subduction zones
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
With regard to the Wilson Cycle, which of the following is an example of opening of an ocean basin?
A given mineral has a specific crystal structure and chemical composition.
Which of the following statements is true for minerals?
Silicate tetrahedra can bond with cations but not with other tetrahedra.
Which of the following statements regarding silicate minerals is false?
Which of the following is NOT a silicate mineral?
The mineral calcite belongs to which of the following mineral groups?
Native element minerals are comprised of only one element
What distinguishes the native element minerals from the other mineral groups?
Gypsum and anhydrite
Which of the following pairs of minerals belong to the same mineral group?
Uplift and exposure
According to the Rock Cycle, which of the following is the first stage in converting a metamorphic rock into a sedimentary rock?
Only igneous rocks can be uplifted and exposed to weathering.
Which of the following statements regarding the Rock Cycle is FALSE?
Magma crystallizing deep in the crust cools slowly and forms large crystals
Which of the following statements regarding cooling rates of magma is TRUE?
Sill and dike
What are the two dominant igneous intrusions illustrated?
explosive eruptions and volcanic ash.
A magma rich in dissolved gases will produce...
A light-colored igneous rock with abundant quartz and potassium feldspar is probably ________ in composition
Has low silica content
A low-viscosity magma most likely...
Which of the following is NOT a direct product of weathering?
Are composed of particles of pre-existing rocks.
Detrital (clastic) sedimentary rocks...
Uplifted bedrock undergoing weathering and erosion
Which of the following is NOT a sedimentary environment where sediments accumulate?
Particles in breccia are angular, while particles in conglomerate are rounded
How does breccia differ from conglomerate?
Which of the following chemical sedimentary rocks will most likely contain fossils?
_________ metamorphism is directly associated with the margins of igneous intrusions?
Near mid-ocean ridges
Hydrothermal metamorphism will most likely occur...
Which of the following is NOT a foliated metamorphic rock?
Alignment of platy minerals like micas in a common direction due to direct pressure during metamorphism.
Which of the following statements is an example of foliation in metamorphic rocks?
Hornfels are most commonly associated with ___________ metamorphism
Quartz sandstone is metamorphosed into ___________
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