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160 terms

technology in action ch. 1-13

STUDY
PLAY
Images are a representation of sound and light waves called ________ or continuous waves.
analog
Digital formats are descriptions of signals as:
a long string of numbers
The most full-featured and powerful cell phones are put in the category of:
smartphones.
Symbian is:
an operating system for cell/smartphones.
The Apple iPhone uses a version of ________ as an operating system.
Mac OS X
The operating system of a cell phone is stored in:
ROM
An analog-to-digital converter chip:
converts the sound waves from a voice into a digital signal
The newest cell/smartphone displays are ________, which allow bright, sharp imaging and draw less power.
OLED
A base transceiver station receives a request for cellular service and passes that request to a central location called a:
mobile switching center
Ensuring that two devices, for example, a PC and a cell/smartphone, have the same files is the process of:
synchronizing
A(n) ________ is included in a cell phone to handle the compression of data for it to be quickly transmitted to another phone.
codec
Which of the following uses radio waves to transmit data signals over short distances and is not hampered by needing a direct line of sight?
Bluetooth
________ is the use of equipment to provide voice communications over a distance.
Telephony
Text messaging is also called:
short message service (SMS).
Text prediction ________ provide a list of popular words and save typing time when using text messaging.
algorithms
SMS delivers messages to the appropriate mobile device using ________ technology
store-and-forward
Opera Mobile is an example of:
a microbrowser.
Web content specially designed for viewing via a cell/smartphone is written in a format called:
WML (Wireless Markup Language).
Which of the following is specialized software made to display Web pages on a cell phone?
microbrowser
LogMeIn is an example of a:
remote access service for mobile devices
An iPod is an example of a:
personal media player (PMP).
A portable media player can play files with all of the following file extensions EXCEPT:
DOC
Flash memory, used by most MP3 players, is a type of:
nonvolatile memory.
Which of the following is the process of sharing files between two or more computers?
peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing
Which of the following allows you to download and play music with restrictions enforced about its use?
tethered downloads
To transfer files from your computer to a portable media player (PMP), most newer PMPs use a ________ port or a FireWire port.
USB 2.0
Which of the following describes the number of times an analog wave is measured each second during an analog-to-digital conversion?
sampling rate
All of the following are advantages of VoIP EXCEPT:
portability.
________ is a form of voice-based Internet communication that turns a standard Internet connection into a means to place phone calls, including long-distance calls.
VoIP
Which of the following statements is NOT true about the JPEG file format?
JPEGs are larger than raw files
________ is a special copyleft license used for software.
GNU
MPEG-4, H.264, and DivX are all examples of
codecs
Broadcasting your video to a live audience over the Web is referred to as:
Webcasting
________ is a single cable that carries all audio and video information from devices connected to a TV to the TV itself.
HDMI
Netbooks are also referred to as:
subnotebooks.
Who funded the development of technologies that would eventually become the Internet?
The United States Government
Which of the following entities does NOT play a role in the governance and deployment of the Internet?
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
The organization responsible for the Internet's domain name system and IP address allocation is:
ICANN
________ is a consortium of more than 400 member organizations that develops Web protocols
W3C
The main paths of the Internet along which data travels the fastest are known collectively as the Internet ________.
backbone
The majority of Internet communications follows the ________ model of network communications
client/sever
________ are high-speed, fiber-optic communications lines
OC lines
One or more network switches to which ISPs connect are referred to as
Internet exchange points (IXPs)
By using a(n) ________, individual Internet users are able to connect to their ISP
Point of presence (POP)
By using common ________, networks can communicate even if they have different network topologies, transmission media, or operating systems.
communication protocols
Used since the early days of the telephone, ________ uses a dedicated connection between two points that remains active during transmission.
circuit switching
At a minimum, what content must all data packets contain?
recipient's address, sender's address, reassembling instructions, and data
The original Internet backbone used T lines, which used:
twisted pair wires
Which of the following has the greatest bandwidth
OC lines
Computers running specialized operating systems that enable them to host Web pages and other information are called:
Web Servers
Computers that host software that enables users to purchase goods and services over the Internet are called ________ servers
commerce
.com and .org are examples of:
top-level domains
A set of rules for exchanging electronic information is called a
protocol.
________ protocols are standards that are made public for access by any interested party.
Open system
________ uses a dedicated connection between two points that remains active for the duration of transmission.
Circuit switching
When data is broken into smaller chunks to be sent over various routes at the same time, it is called:
packet switching
BitTorrent is an example of a popular file-sharing service that uses:
peer-to-peer mode.
The protocol that prepares data for transmission but has no resending capabilities is:
UDP.
The protocol that transfers HTML data from servers to browsers is:
HTTP.
The protocol that enables logging in to a remote computer and working on it as if you were sitting in front of it is:
Telnet
Which of the following specifications is used to simplify attachments to e-mail messages?
MIME
A unique number that identifies a computer, server, or device connected to the Internet is called a(n):
IP address.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), created in the early 1980s, allows about __________ IP addresses
4 billion
An IP address that is assigned from an available pool of IP addresses is called a(n):
dynamic address
IPv6 uses what number system to create IP addresses?
hexadecimal
An IP address that does not change and is usually assigned manually by a network administrator is called a(n):
static address.
A ________ server takes a pool of IP addresses and shares them with hosts on the network on an as-needed basis
DHCP
Which of the following statements concerning IPv4 addresses is FALSE?
The addresses are 16-bit numbers
Which of the following statements concerning IP addresses is TRUE?
Dynamic addressing is normally handled by DHCP
________ provides a methodology whereby your browser can request that a program be executed instead of just being delivered to the browser.
CGI
The root DNS servers know the location of all DNS servers that contain the master listings for an entire:
top-level domain
A(n) ________ contains text that is linked to other documents or media.
hypertext document
________ creates a secure connection between a client and a server and can safeguard your credit card information.
SSL
Which of the following statements concerning HTML and XHTML is FALSE?
HTML and XHTML are considered server-side programs
Text such as <b><i>This should be bolded and italicized.</i></b> is an example of an HTML
element
It is estimated that ________ percent of e-mail is spam.
90
The ability of two or more people to communicate in text over the Internet in real time is called:
instant messaging
________ are lists of statements that use a single location to specify how to display HTML/XHTML elements
Cascading style sheets (CSS)
What is the range of normal Wi-Fi connectivity?
300 feet
What is the range of normal WiMAX connectivity?
31 Miles
Currently used in Europe and Australia, ________ uses a normal wall outlet to connect to the Internet
BPL
________ switching has been used since the early days of the telephone for establishing communication
Circuit
Which protocol uses standard Internet connections to make phone calls over the Internet?
VoIP
________ delivers business services online that were previously delivered locally by company-owned IT departments
Cloud computing
Cascading style sheets have a hierarchy of styles that include all of the following EXCEPT
independent
A ________ is a secure Internet pathway that large corporations use to protect sensitive data
VPN
Which of the following is formally defined as any criminal action perpetrated primarily through the use of a computer?
cybercrime
A majority of online credit card fraud results from
phishing
A computer virus normally attaches itself to another computer program known as a:
host program.
A ________ is a virus that is triggered when certain conditions are met, such as a file opening or starting a program a certain number of times.
logic bomb
Which type of virus was the famous Michelangelo virus?
a time bomb
Which of the following classifications of viruses can change its own code?
polymorphic
A ________ works independently of host file execution and is much more active in spreading itself than a virus is.
worm
A(n) ________ virus temporarily erases its code from the files where they reside and then hides in the computer's active memory
stealth
With regard to computer protection, quarantining is defined as:
placing a found virus in a secure area on the hard drive.
During the process of ________ the antivirus software records key attributes about the files on your computer and keeps these statistics in a safe place on your hard drive
encryption
A(n) ________ is the portion of virus code that is unique to a particular computer virus
virus signature
Drive-by downloads occur when
a Web site downloads harmful software onto your computer
A packet sniffer is a program that can enable a hacker to do all of the following EXCEPT
launch a denial of service (DoS) attack on your computer
Which of the following is a program that appears to be something useful or desirable but does something malicious in the background?
a Trojan horse
________ floods a computer with requests until it shuts down and refuses to answer any requests for information
A DDoS attack
The most likely method a hacker would use to access a computer is
entering through the Internet
Rules for creating passwords include all of the following EXCEPT
keep your password written down and stored in any easy-to-remember location
You can block logical ports to invaders and make your computer invisible to others on the Internet by installing
a firewall.
________ makes broadband users more vulnerable to attacks.
Static addressing
The purpose of network address translation (NAT) is to:
hide user IP addresses from the Internet
________ occurs when a hacker takes control of a Bluetooth-enabled device to make phone calls, read phonebook entries, send and receive text messages, and more
Bluebugging
Configuring a firewall to ignore all incoming packets that request access to a specific port is known as:
logical port blocking.
Many ________ sold for home use are also configured as firewalls and are capable of performing network address translation (NAT).
routers
Using a ________, hackers can access and delete all files on your computer, send e-mail, run programs, and do just about anything else you can do with your computer
backdoor program
Adware and spyware are referred to collectively as:
grayware
________ is an unwanted piggyback program that usually downloads with software you are installing from the Internet
Spyware
Spyware programs that monitor keystrokes with the intent of stealing passwords, login IDs, or credit card information are referred to as
keystroke loggers.
Which of the following statements about cookies is NOT true?
Cookies obtain your personal information by searching your hard drive
Devices that use a unique personal characteristic, such as a fingerprint, in place of a password are called ________ authentication devices
biometric
All of the following can be used for backing up data files EXCEPT
RAM
All of the following approaches can be taken to protect your notebook computer from theft EXCEPT
installing an external hard drive.
A ________ is a virus that is attached to documents such as Word or Excel files.
macro virus
A(n) ________ virus runs a program that searches for common data files, compresses them, and makes them unusable
encryption
________ is doing anything with a computer while you are being paid to do your job
Cyberloafing
For complete protection when backing up your files, you should use a program that creates a(n) ________ of your entire system
image backup
Social ________ is any technique that uses social skills to generate human interaction that entices individuals to reveal sensitive information
engineering
________ encourages Internet users to reveal sensitive information that could lead to identity theft by sending e-mails that look like they are from legitimate companies but are, in fact, fake.
Phishing
A cyberspace ________ is an attempt to make someone believe something that is untrue
hoax
Which of these statements about physically protecting your computer is FALSE
Data line surges can be blocked by using a computer surround
Which of the statements about protecting against power surges is FALSE
Printers do not require power surge protection
As defined by the NSA and the Office of Homeland Security, a set of measures intended to protect and defend information and information systems is referred to as
information quality control
Which of the following is NOT an example of a network node?
a mouse
A computer network is defined as two or more computers connected with ________ so that they can communicate with each other
software and hardware
A(n) ________ allows sharing of a broadband Internet connection
router
Network architectures are classified according to:
the way they are controlled and the distance between their nodes.
Normal telephone wire is:
twisted pair cable
The ________ is the maximum speed at which data can be transmitted between two nodes on a network
data transfer rate
The most common type of home network is:
a peer-to-peer (P2P) network
Due to the expansion of media files on home computers, ________ options are now being marketed; however, they are not as full featured as their business-world counterparts
home server
A network that has 10 or more nodes is usually configured as a:
client/server network
Which of the following is NOT an example of a WAN?
LANs connected in a single building
A ________ is a network located in your home that is used to connect all of your digital devices
HAN
Which transmission medium is able to transmit data the fastest?
fiber-optic cable
Throughput, the actual speed of data transfer that is achieved in a network, is usually
less than the data transfer rate
Network adapters
enable nodes in a network to communicate with each other.
Sophisticated networks generally use which of the following hardware devices to ease the flow of data packets throughout the network?
routers and switches
Client/server networks are controlled by a central server that runs a specialized piece of software called:
a network operating system (NOS).
The major difference in types of P2P networks is the ________ by which the nodes are connected and the bandwidth each achieves
transmission medium
For Ethernet cables that run more than 100 meters, you can use ________ to boost the signal
repeaters
Which of the following UTP cable types is the cheapest and often used in home networks?
Cat 5E
The most popular transmission medium option for wired Ethernet networks is:
unshielded twisted pair cable (UTP).
A(n) ________ keeps track of data packets and, in conjunction with network interface cards, helps the data packets find their destination without running into each other on an Ethernet network
switch
Which of the following is necessary if you want your Ethernet network to connect to the Internet through a DSL or cable modem?
a DSL/cable router
A ________ is a specialized entertainment device that is specifically designed to retrieve digital media from computers or storage devices on a network and display them on televisions or home theater systems
DMR
A wireless network uses which of the following as its transmission medium?
radio waves
Which of the following devices translates electronic data into radio waves?
a transceiver
Which of the following network adapters is most likely to be preinstalled in a typical notebook computer today?
both a wireless and wired network adapter
Which of the following devices is needed to share an Internet connection on a wireless network?
a wireless router
Most ________ allow you to connect wireless and wired computers to the same network
wireless routers
All of the following are reasons for using a power-line network instead of an Ethernet network EXCEPT:
power-line networks cost less.
When setting up a network, you should set up any computers running the Microsoft Windows 7 operating system
first
The unique number assigned to a network adapter by the manufacturer is referred to as the ________ address
MAC
WPA stands for
Wi-Fi Protected Access
One way to increase security on a network is by installing a
firewall