Test 2: ch. 12

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Terms in this set (...)

weathering
the process by which factors or conditions in the environment break rocks down into smaller pieces
chemical weathering
-chemical changes that break down rocks into smaller pieces or dissolve them in solution
-main agent: water
-changes the composition of the original mineral
-slow process
mechanical weathering
-a physical process that breaks down the rock into smaller pieces(does not change the chemical composition of the rock)
-frost wedging
-exfoliation
-biological weathering
-talus
frost wedging
a process in which water trapped in cracks and pores of rock freezes and expands, creating fragments of rock
exfoliation
the process in which thin layers or slabs of rock flake off due to heating or cooling overlaying rock removed by erosion
biological weathering
resulting from either the chemicals plant produce or from the burrowing and wedging of animals and plants that expose more rock surface to environmental weathering factors
talus
broken pieces of rock at the bottom of a cliff or mountain
erosion
-the process of wearing away rock and transporting sediments
-by gravity
-by water
-by wind
-by ice
erosion by water
sheetwash, gullying, rivers, river system, load, saltation, drainage basin, tributaries, flood plain, levees, meanders, oxbow lake, delta, alluvial fan, beaches, sand bar, barrier islands, sound, promontories, sea cliff, sea cave, sea arch, sea stack
sheetwash
runoff stripping away topsoil
gullying
running water carving a channel in the ground that can't be repaired by ordinary cultivation
rivers
large streams that carry water from the mountains to the seas
river system
all streams and tributaries that merge into a river
load
the material carried by a stream
saltation
larger sediments hoping repeatedly over the stream bottom as they are carried along by the flow
drainage basin
region of land drained by a river system
tributaries
streams that feed a river
flood plain
the level or nearly level land that borders a river and is covered by river water in flood time
levees
natural ridges along the edges of a river channel
meanders
the winding, looping curves of a river on a flat plain
oxbow lake
a cut-off meander forming a crescent-shaped lake
delta
fan or triangle shaped deposit extending from the mouth of the river into the sea
alluvial fan
a delta-like deposit of sediments often found in the desert at the mouth of a dry stream bed
beaches
gently sloping coasts covered by sand or pebbles
sand bar
underwater ridges of sand or gravel formed by waves & currents
barrier islands
narrow, sandy islands formed from bars that rise above the surface
sound
the body of water lying between the barrier island & the coast
promontories
headlands that project out into the sea along deep-water shores
sea cliff
formed from erosion of rock at the base of a shore
sea cave
formed when soft areas of a sea cliff are eroded by water
sea arch
narrow formation of rock that arch out into the sea
sea stack
produced when a sea arch collapses
erosion by gravity
mass wasting
mass wasting
-the transportation of rocks and soil downhill by gravity alone
-soil creep
-mudflows
-landslides
soil creep
a type of mass wasting involving the imperceptibly slow down slope movement of soil and rock fragments
mudflows
a form of mass wasting involving the rapid downhill movement of loose, water saturated soil
landslides
-rapid mass wasting of earth materials downhill
-debris slide
-rockslide
-avalanche
debris slide
a type of landslide that involves rock fragments, soil, and other loose materials
rockslide
a landslide consisting primarily of bedrock
avalanche
when ice and snow are involved in a landslide
erosion by wind
deflation, blowouts, desert pavement, loess, abrasion, sand dunes, crescent dunes, parabolic dunes, and transverse dunes
deflation
the process of forming desert pavement by the removal of loose sand & soil particles by the wind; most important effect of wind erosion
blowouts
shallow hollows or depressions in the ground
desert pavement
barren, rocky surfaces common in some windy desert regions
loess
a thick deposit of fine wind blown dust and silt that provides an excellent base for rich soil; 4 feet > 300 feet thick
abrasion
the sandblasting action of windblown sand
sand dunes
-huge heaps of loose, windblown sand, common in deserts and near beaches
-crescent
-parabolic
-transverse
crescent dunes
most common type of dunes; sickle-shaped
parabolic dunes
arch-shaped
transverse dunes
resemble ocean swells or waves, lie in straight rows perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing winds
erosion by ice
glacier, continental glacier, valley glacier, cirque, horn, striae, till, moraine, and drumlins
glacier
a tick ice sheet that slowly moves under its own weight
continental glacier
vast sheets of glacial ice that cover huge areas of relatively flat land
valley glaciers
a highland glacier that flows slowly down a valley in a mountainous region like a river of ice
cirque
a huge bowl-shaped depression carved by a glacier
horn
a steeple-shaped mountain peak formed when three or more cheques cut into a mountain
striae
deep grooves and scratches carved in bedrock by a glacier
till
broken rock and other sediments deposited by a glacier
moraine
heaps or ridges of till left by a retreating glacier
drumlins
a low, rolling hill formed when an advancing glacier overruns a moraine
glacial moraines
-terminal
-lateral
-ground
-medial
terminal moraines
piles of debris left at the front of a retreating glacier
lateral moraines
piles of debris left along the sides of a glacier
ground moraines
piles of debris left along the ground from the bottom of a glacier
medial moraines
piles of debris that were left from the middle of a retreating glacier
outwash
deposits of sand, gravel, and other sediments that are washed out from beneath a glacier as the glacier melts
kettles
large holes left from the melting of huge chunks of glacial ice lodged in till or outwash
kettle lake
when a kettle fills with water
cave; cavern
A ____ is a natural under ground void large enough for a human to enter, while a ______ is just a large cave.
dripstone
-rock deposited by precipitation from dripping water
-stalactite
-stalagmite
-column
stalactite
large, icicle-like mass of calcium carbonate
stalagmite
spiral like mass of calcium carbonate on the floor
column
forms when a stalactite and stalagmite row until they join
terracing
modifying a smooth slope into a series of levels, stair like steps
strip-cropping
alternation strips of erosion-prone crops with strips of erosion-preventing crops
breakwaters
objects placed in water & designed to reduce the force of waves
planting grasses
holds soil in place
wind break fences
stops the wind from carrying sand & soil away