EEL - Spelling Rules
cent, fancy, gem, giraffe, gym
c says /s/ and g may say /j/ before e, i or y
puff, bell, toss
f, l, and s are usually doubled after a short vowel at the end of a one-syllable word.
In English words, q is always followed by u and together they say /kw/.
can, cob, cut
key, kick, kyannite
At the beginning of a word or syllable, /k/ is usually spelled -c before a, o, and u and -k before e, i, or y
At the end of a word or syllable, /k/ is usually spelled -ck after a short vowel,
-k after a a consonant or two vowels
-ke after a long vowel and
-c at the end of a multi-syllable word
At the end of a word, /j/ is usually spelled
-dge after a short vowel and
-ge after anything else
At the end of a word, /s/ is usually spelled
-ss after a short vowel in a one syllable word
-ce after a long vowel and
-se after a consonant or two vowels
zip, is, has, fuzz, prize
At the beginning of a word /z/ is always spelled z.
At the end of a word /s/ may be spelled
-s or zz after a short vowel or
-ze after a long vowel
At the end of a word, /ch/ is usually spelled
-tch after a short vowel and
-ch after everything else
high, rage, blue, give
English words do not usually end in i, j, u, or v
w can change the pronunciation of the vowel that follows it.
special, session, station
At the beginning or end of any base word, /sh/ is usually spelled sh
At the beginning of any syllable except the first one, /sh/ can be spelled ci, si, or ti. The only exception is the ending -ship
A vowel in a closed syllable usually says its short sound.
A vowel in an accented open syllable usually says its long sound.
A vowel in an unaccented open syllable usually says the schwa sound.
children, problem, seven
The schwa sound /a/ can be spelled a (banana, thousand) e (children, problem, seven), i (animal, president), o (harmony), u (succeed), ai (captain, mountain), ea (ocean), and ou (famous).
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