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Graphic Design Vocab.
Terms in this set (81)
Adaptive color Palette
A custom color palette for GIF file consisting of the 256 (or fewer) most-used colors in an image. Since adaptive color palettes are tailored to individual images, they can provide high-quality color in relativity small files.
A generic term used to describe any software program that carries out a specific task.
the relationship of width information to height information.
A series of dots or squares arranged on a grid in a x-y axis that make up an image. Each pixel or dot is assigned a bit depth of color.
A type of image file format that uses a grid of pixels to create shapes. Bitmap images, sometimes called raster images, consist of a fixed number of individually editable pixels. Photographs and screen captures are usually bitmap images.
Bits per second (bps)
Measures the speed of the number of bits transferred in a communication system.
A smooth gradation of tone or color from light to dark, or the demarcation of two neighboring color areas.
The averaging of pixel values.
hue. color information in an image.
Cyan, magenta, yellow, and black, the subtractive colors used in the four-color printing process.
The amount of color information, expresses in bits per pixel, include with an image or that a device is capable of rendering. Standard color depths, sometimes referred to as bit depths, are 8-bit, 16-bit, and 24-bit. An 8-bit image or device can display up to 256 colors, while 16-bits represent thousands of colors and 24-bits represent millions of colors.
An algorithm that significantly reduces files sizes by removing redundant data. Common compression schemes include JPEG, LZW, and RLE.
The light sensors clustered near the center of the human retina used to sense chrominance or color values.
the process of removing the excess part of an image, while retaining just the part you want to appear.
lines of an image indicating where the finished page is to be trimmed.
the process of simulating colors by combining different ratios of colored pixels. For example, different combinations of black and white pixels can simulate shades of grey. Or, adjacent red and yellow pixels can approximate orange. dithering attempts to retain the distinction between shades of color without retaining extra color information.
converting a bitmap image to a lower resolution by creating new pixels through complex mathematical operations meant to make the downsampled image look as much as possible like the original.
Audio, video, and animation files incorporated into PDF and HTML publications. Sometimes referred to as hypermedia, dynamic media includes movies, news clips, music, voice-overs, and cartoons that bring interactivity to electronic publications. most movies are stored in Quicktime format, while sound files vary between the Windows WAV format and the Mac's AIFF format.
A document that is distributed by computer rather than on paper. Electronic publications can be printed as well, but they are primarily intended to be read onscreen, searched, and saved for the future access.
An algorithm that modifies the pixel matrix of an image to create a visual effect.
description of an image that lacks contrast from the highlight to shadow.
Creating a mirror image representation of an image.
a selected group of pixels that floats above the image until it is deselected and dropped onto the desired position on the image.
the act of adjusting an image to appear as sharply defined as possible.
the CMYK color system used for printing
GIF (graphics interchange format)
the standard file format for web graphics. Not as rich in color fidelity as TIFF, this bitmap format is more space-efficient, thus its use in browsers. Most graphics in Web documents are translated to GIF. for PDF documents, there is no reason to convert existing graphics to GIF.
one thousand megabytes
the granular of sand-like appearance in a print of transparency.
a tonal scale graduated from white to grey to black
the black-and-white image with more than one bit of information in the image. typically an 8-bit image with 256 levels of tone.
a defined area of vertical and horizontal lines, either visible or mathematic.
hue, saturation, and brightness
hue, saturation, and lightness.
the hue, saturation, and value color space.
the color of something. hues can be specified by wave lengths of light of CIE coordinates.
Image aspect ratio
the horizontal number of pixels versus vertical pixels of an image.
Image processing programs
applications specifically used to manipulate image data, as opposed to image creation programs, which specialize in creating images from scratch.
a color system using information from a files as a pointer to look up table of values for specifying color.
describes the display process of raster image on television. every other line of pixels is redrawn on each pass of digital information. Stair stepping. an attribute of a GIF that causes it to display in two passes: first every other line displays, offering a rough outline of the image. then, the remaining lines display and complete the images. although interlaced files display at the same speed as non interlaced files, the preliminary outline gives viewers the impression of speed.
A bitmap format, supported by Web browsers, that uses compression to make images take less file space (and download time), by removing detail from the image. (this is called lossy compression.) thus JPEG is reserved for complex images, such as photographs, where the fine detail is not needed for on screen display. both letting you balance file size and image fidelity.
horizontal orientation of an image, as opposed to portrait orientation, which is vertical.
A selection tool that allows a free and arbitrary selection of pixels.
nondeductive file compression. keeps all original pixel information regardless of how many times it compresses and decompresses the data.
any increase in physical size of an original during reproduction.
a mask designates an area that is to be changed or protected from change
picture elements: the dots comprising a bitmap image. a word derived from picture elements to become visible
Pixel aspect ratio
the horizontal versus vertical size of a pixel. square pixels have an aspect ratio of one.
a condition of too-low resolution that allows individual picture elements to become visible
pixel per inch (ppi)
the number of pixels that occupy one inch.
a vertical image orientation as opposed to landscape
a second generation image based on an original
changing the resolution of an image by adding or discarding pixels. also known as res-ing. the process of regenerating a file according to a different color palette or compression scheme often with the intent of making the file smaller. for example, resampling a tiff image file as a 216-color GIF file creates a web-ready, smaller file.
the number of discrete elements per unit of measure that make up an image, or the number of imaging or sampling units used in a devise.
describes images, such as vectors, that are not dependent on resolution. so they do not lose edge quality with enlargement being resolution independent is desirable for text bitmapped images are not resolution independent.
techniques that attempt to alter or improve an image without detection.
turning an image from its original axis
making a copy of something. another word for scanning
the number of samples made in a specific area, such as 200 pixels per inch.
the strength of a color or how far a color is from gray. the greater the saturation of a color, the further it is from gray.
changing the size of images or graphics
an item, location, or group of pixels isolated for manipulation.
a pure color mixed with black
the dark areas of an image
the area of greatest density in an original where the 95 percent printing dot is set
to enhance the edge contrast in an image to make the scene appear sharper, more in focus
distorting an image as if it were being italicized
controls that increase or decrease an effect by moving a control bar right or left or up and down
retaining a proportion of existing pixels to reduce the file size of an image this usually results in a rough approximation of the original image, although it is faster to create than a down sampled image
subtractive secondary colors
cmy cyan, magenta, and yellow when added together subtract all light and make black the total distance of cmy creates white
a standard set of colors used for on screen display within both windows and mac os, the system palette is significant in electronic publishing because the windows and mac os systems palettes have only 216 of the 256 colors in common. to endure consistence color display designer usually limit colors in in electronic publications to the 216 colors common both system palettes.
a defined level to determine whether a pixel will be represented as black or white.
a visual table of contents for a pdf document composed of tiny preview of each page. readers can use thumbnails to quickly locate and jump to different pages.
an abbreviation for tagged image file format, which is the standard for bitmap graphic in print publishing. many graphics in electronic documents will start out as tiff files, however web browser do not know how to display TIFF files so you will have to translate tiff formats to recognize web format fortunately most html editors and web publishing programs do this automatically
the range of printed densities in an original or reproduction
any color of neutral that is denser than specular white.
a photographic transmissive color subject in various format size
creating intermediate steps between objects, with the steps metamorphosing from one to the other
24 bit color
a binary system that assigns 8 bits of info for red, green, and blue in an image making more than 16.7 million color possibilities.
increasing the number of pixels in a file
the degree of light ness or darkness
a type of image file format that uses mathematical expressions to describe shapes
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