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Terms in this set (46)
What is the estimated annual worldwide expenditure on illicit drugs?
over 312 billion dollars
What is the definition of drugs?
Cause recognizable physical or psychological effects
How does social/culture definitions impact the classifications of drugs?
The classification of drugs, their legal status, and physical and psychological effects are matters of social/ cultural definition
What are some myths of drug use?
The subject of drugs is clouded with myths such as the belief that all illegal drugs are dangerous and drug use is all pervasive. In reality many illegal drugs, do little harm, and most drug problems are confined to the lower class.
The public and drug abuse?
The public is confused about the difference between drug abuse and illegal drugs. Many people assume that drugs are abusive or dangerous simply because they are illegal.
Drug use in perspective?
-Danger of legal drugs
-Alcohol and tobacco vs. illegal drugs
-Changing perceptions of drugs (cocaine, cigarettes)
-Alcoholic beverages and tobacco is more prevalent that the use of illegal drugs and kill at least 60 times as Americans as do all the illegal drugs combined.
Extent of Drug Use?
-10 percent of persons 12 years and older use illicit drugs every year
-Serious drug problems are more prevalent in lower classes
-Most illicit drug users only use drugs occasionally
Where does the U.S. rank in illicit drug use?
-The U.S. leads the world in illicit drug use
-Marijuana is the most popular drug
-Rate has stabilized or decreased, except for marijuana
What is the most common drug?
Marijuana: went from 14.8 million to 17.4 million
Cocaine: 2.4 million to 1.5 million
the, meth, ecstasy, heroin (in order)
What are the four stages that drug users go through?
-Habitual or regular use
-Futile efforts to break the habit
What are the stages that one goes through to learn to enjoy getting high?
-Master the technique of getting high
-Recognize the effects
-Enjoy the drugs effects
Why do U.S. drug users continue unsafe practices?
-They are addicts
-Driven by risk-taking in a dangerous daily life
Drugs and crime?
-There is a strong association between drugs and crime
-Does that mean that drugs cause crime?
-Two theories: drug enslavement and general deviance syndrome theory
What is the drug enslavement theory?
-Drug users are forced into a life of crime because they cannot afford to pay for their prohibitively expensive drug habit unless they rob or steal.
-Doe not account for addicts who can get drugs legally continue to commit crime, or the fact that most drug users are well-off enough to purchase drugs, and are not more likely than nonusers to get involved in crime
What is general deviance syndrome?
-Most drug users had a criminal record before using drugs. Drug use intensifies criminal tendencies, but does not cause it.
-Explains the high correlation between drugs and crime by saying that both drug users and criminality are part of general deviance syndrome
-Those involved in one form of deviance are likely to get involved in another.
How is socioeconomic status measured?
-SES measured in terms of education, occupation, and income
Heroin and SES?
-Herion is the most popular drug among lower-status people, Inner city use
-Affluent whites have been using in increasing numbers since the 1990s since heroin is pure enough to smoke or snort, no risk of AIDS through needles.
Cocaine and SES?
-Cocaine has long been associated with affluent people
-less affluent individuals have begun to use as prices have dropped
-Crack cocaine is popular with the poor.
Marijuana and SES?
-Strong association between marijuana use and higher status high school and college users
Meth and SES?
Meth is popular among working-class and young people.
-Working class persons may use meth to seek euphoria, and enhanced sense of self-confidence, a burst of energy, and to suppress appetite.
Roofies and SES?
Roofies are popular among young people (particularly those who drink) because as a depressant it has the same effect, but far more potent
Ecstasy and SES?
Often associated with high school and college students and young professionals.
Drug use by age?
-65 and older and the least likely
-Ages 18 to 25 are the most likely (21.5 percent)
-Illicit drug use declines rapidly after the age of 29.
Drugs by gender?
-Females are least likely (6.3 percent)
-Men are the most likely (9.9 percent)
Men and women are equally likely to use psychotherapeutic drugs without a prescription (pain relievers, stimulants, methamphetamine, sedatives, etc)
Drugs and employment?
-Employed: least likely- about 8 percent who are employed full time (10 percent employed part time)
-Unemployed: most likely- about 20 percent report using drugs regularly
-A smaller percentage of the population is unemployed- so technically smaller numbers.
Majority of drug users still employed full time.
-Thus, unemployed individuals are more likely to use drugs, but the majority of drug users are employed full-time.
Drug use by region?
-South has the lowest rate
-West has the highest rate
What is the social profile of illegal drug users?
-Males (especially heavy users)
-Relatively young and free from constraint
-Parents who use legal drugs and friends who first gave them drugs
-Skipped school more often and stayed home less often
What are the two strategies or the war on drugs?
-Punitive: using law enforcement to stop the supply of drugs
-Supportive: using drug prevention and treatment to solve the drug problem
**U.S. government devotes the majority of its anti drug budget to law enforcement
-Despite these efforts, drugs are still easily available on the street, mainly because the demand for them is so great.
-Anti-drug laws have often been aimed at the powerless
-Opium: late 1800s
-Cocaine: early 1900s
-Pot and LSD: 1960s
**Users see a disparity in sentencing based on class
Describe the punitive strategy?
-Law enforcement states often target poor minorities, and poor foreign countries
-Such strategies have failed to reduce drug use rates
What drug prevention measures are there?
-School programs, TV commercials, and education:
DARE- Drug abuse resistance education
-Drug education alone cannot work for children with specific life circumstances
-Research has shown that DARE does not significantly prevent drug use, although it does enhance children self-esteem, polish their social skills, and improve their attitudes toward police
Drug education does not help with children that?
-With family history of alcoholism
-Family history of criminality
-Poor parental child-rearing practices
-Parental drug use or permissive attitudes towards drugs
-Early antisocial behavior in school, especially aggressive behavior
-Alienation and low commitment to education
-Academic failure in middle to late elementary school education
-Socializing with friends who take drugs
What is chemical treatment?
Detoxification, maintenance therapy
What is psychological therapy?
What is therapeutic community?
Involve drug addicts living together like members of a family, cut off from outside contacts. They support each other to live a drug free life.
e.g. Phoenix house
What are different drug treatments?
Which programs are the most successful?
Programs are most successful when patients:
-earn good income
-have support from friends/family
-are free from drug-abuse subcultures
Should drugs be legalized?
-Proponents argue that legalizing drugs will:
-Remove drug users from other criminal associations
-Allow law enforcement funds to be redirected to treatment and education
-Bring in more tax money
-Majority of American support the legalization of marijuana
-Legalization of drugs cannot solve institutional problems (racism, inequality, poverty)
What are the arguments? (3)
-Criminalization leads to corruption and crime
-Legalization leads to drug use and addiction
-Middle ground: striking a middle ground with some restrictions: age, medical, etc.
Prescription drug abuse
-Rose sharply from 1980s to 2012
-12 and over (2.6 percent)
-Most common types: opioids, CNS depressants, stimulants
-More middle class people are now abusing prescription drugs, especially painkillers
Reasons from prescription drug abuse?
-Drugs are readily available
-Assumption that prescription drugs are safe
-Similar influences as other drugs
College students and drugs?
-23 percent of full-time college students use illicit drugs
-25 percent of males
-19 percent of females
-Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug on college campuses (males 23, females 16)
-Often combined with binge drinking or other drugs
General strain theory and drugs?
1- blocked goals
2- removal os positive stimuli
3- presence of negative stimuli
-General strain theorists would point to the negative emotions surrounding these strains as increasing the likelihood of drug use.
Low self control theory and drugs?
(1) criminal acts provide immediate gratification,
(2) criminal acts provide easy gratification
(3) criminal acts are exciting, risky, or thrilling, (4) crime provides few long-term benefits
(5) crimes require little skill or planning
(6) crimes often result in pain for the victim.
-According to the General Theory of Crime, criminals are shortsighted and self-centered, and have an inclination for risk-taking behavior.
-The lower the individual's self-control, the greater the likelihood of drug use
Illegitimate opportunity theory and drugs?
three distinctive subcultures:
(a) the criminal subculture, where youth achieve goals by stealing, robbing, and fencing
(b) a conflict subculture, where violent gangs give high status to good fighters
(c) the retreatist subculture, where the use of drugs is featured.
-The more retreatist subcultures in a given society, the higher the rate of illicit drug use.
Social learning theory and drugs?
four interrelated processes:
(2) differential association
(3) differential reinforcement
-The greater the primary association with persons who define substance abuse as justifiable and pleasurable, the more likely those definitions will be reinforced and substance abuse behaviors imitated.
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