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52 terms

A&P Chapter 10 Review

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These branching structures carry information toward the cell body of a neuron.
Dendrites
The neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine (ACh) are stored within the...
Axon terminal
What is the name of the space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of a second neuron?
Synapse or Synaptic Cleft
What is the name of the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine?
acetylcholinesterase
What term describes the hopping of the action potential (nerve impulse) along the axon from one node (of Ranvier) to the next?
Saltatory Conduction
The frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes form the_____.
Cerebrum
The primary somatosensory area and the primary motor area are separated by...
the central sulcus.
There are four major areas of the brain: the cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, and the _____.
Cerebellum
The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata are referred to as the_____.
Brain Stem
Excessive opioids (narcotics) depress the medulla oblongata and therefore cause...
Respiratory Depression
Endorphins are...
natural morphine-like substances that can reduce anxiety and induce a sense of well-being.
The surface of the cerebrum is folded into elevations that resemble speed bumps; these speed bumps are called _____.
Gyrus or Gyri
The depression between the convolutions of the cerebrum is called a_____.
Sulcus
The medulla oblongata descends as the_____.
Spinal Cord
The pituitary gland sits beneath the...
hypothalamus
Which layer of the meninges is described as web-like?
Arachnoid Mater
Corpus callosum is found where?
In between the right and left hemisphere.
In which cerebral lobe is Broca's area located?
Frontal
Which of the following structures is most associated with "wake up"?
reticular activating system
What lobe of the brain contains the primary auditory cortex?
The temporal lobe.
Which lobe of the brain contains the primary visual cortex?
The occipital lobe.
The spaces between the patches of myelin sheath is called...
The nodes of Ranvier
What is located within the subarachnoid space?
CSF
What is the function of the ependymal cells (choroid plexus)?
Forms CSF
What structure conducts a nerve impulse?
Neuron
__________ support and protect the neurons and help to form the blood-brain barrier.
Astrocytes
What is the name of clusters of cell bodies that are located outside the central nervous system?
Ganglia
What is the fatty insulating material that surrounds the axons?
Myelin Sheath
Which of the following is most related to "saltatory conduction"?
Nodes of Ranvier
Which of the following structures brings information toward the cell body?
Dendrites
What makes white matter "white"?
Myelin Sheath
The inside of the unstimulated neuron is negative; this electrical charge is due to the outward leak of potassium and is called...
the resting membrane potential
What is the name of the first phase of the action potential that is caused by the inward movement of sodium?
depolarization
What is the term applied to the inability of a neuron to accept a stimulus while the neuron is still depolarized?
refractory period
The repolarizing phase of the action potential is due to the movement of _____ out of the cell.
K+
Which of the following is the convolution located on the frontal lobe just anterior to the central sulcus?
Primary motor area
What is the name of the motor speech area located in the frontal lobe?
Broca's area
Which structure is also called the "emotional brain"?
Limbic system
The purpose of the Na+/K+ ATPase pump in the neuronal membrane is to
establish the Na+ and K+ gradients necessary for the development of an action potential.
This structure is part of the diencephalon; it regulates the anterior pituitary gland, water balance, appetite, body temperature, and the autonomic nervous system.
hypothalamus
This structure plays a key role in personality development and emotional and behavioral expression; carries out the "executive" functions.
frontal lobe
Injury to the occipital lobe is most likely to cause
loss of vision
Which structure is called the lateral, third, and fourth?
ventricles
Which of the following contains cerebrospinal fluid?
subarachnoid space
Which of the following is the middle layer of the meninges and looks like a spiderweb?
arachnoid mater
What connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres?
corpus callosum
Parkinson's disease
is caused by a deficiency of dopamine within the basal ganglia.
The medulla oblongata descends into the vertebral cavity through the
foramen magnum.
The postcentral gyrus
is located in the parietal lobe.
The precentral gyrus
is the primary motor area.
Broca's area
is concerned with motor speech.
Frontal eye fields
perform a motor role regarding the eyes.