Terms in this set (25)
What is a myth?
comprehensive (but not exclusive) term for stories primarily concerned with the gods and humankind's relations
what has a perceptible relationship to history?
saga or legend
-tales of adventure
-sometimes peopled with fantastic beings and enlivened by ingenious strategies on the part of the hero
-their object is primarily to entertain
-classified as kinds of folktales,
-defined as short, imaginative, traditional tales with a high moral and magical content
A myth provides us with.....
- absolutes in the place of ephemeral values
-comforting perception of the world (make terror of existence bearable)
Myth and religion
-reflect a universal preoccupation with creation, the nature of god and humankind, the afterlife, and other spiritual concerns
Mircea Eliade great emphasis upon.....
-religious aura in his conception of myth as a tale satisfying the yearning of human beings to understand things
- yearning satisfied by stories narrating the events surrounding the beginnings and origins of things.
-He believes that god once in a holy era created the world and this initial cosmogony becomes the origin myth, the model for creations of every kind and stories about them
what is the nature of true myths?
-provides in the imagination a spiritual release from historical time
-fundamentally paradigms and explanations and most important to an individual and society
etiological viewpoint of myths?
-myth should be interpreted narrowly as an explanation of the origin of some fact or custom
-mythmaker is a kind of primitative scientist, using myths to explain facts that cannot be otherwise explained within the limits of society's knowledge at the time
Myths attempt to explain...
the origins of the world
major problem with the etiological viewpoint?
- it does nothing to identify a myth specifically and distinguish it clearly from any other form of expression
-too many essentially different kinds of stories may be basically etiological
Freud's view on dreams are?
-they are the fulfillments of wishes that have been repressed and disguised
what is the process of "dream-work" (Freud)
-condensation of elements (they are abbreviated or compressed)
-displacement of elements (they are changed)
-representation, the transmission of elements into imagery or symbols, which are varied and often sexual
Myths in the Freudian perspective reflect?
-people's waking efforts to systematize the incoherent visions and interpretations of their sleep world
what is Carl Jung's interpretation of a myth?
-projection of the collective unconscious, that is, a revelation of the continuing psychic tendencies in society
-myths contain images of archetypes which are traditional expression of collective dreams of symbols in the society
what is the Collective Unconscious
-collective embraces political and social questions involving the group
what is an archetype?
- it is a behaviour pattern
-a kind of dramatic abbreviation of the patterns involves in a whole story or situation, including the way it develops and how it ends; it is a behaviour pattern.
-Mythology is a pronouncing of a series of images that formulate the life of archetypes
what is Robert Graves definition of a myth
-This theory implies that myths implies ritual, ritual implies myth, they are one in the same
Levi-strauss sees myth as ?
-a mode of communication
-narrative can be perceived at various levels and in different codes (no "right" interpretation)
Levi-strauss assumes that society .....
has a consistent structure and therefore a functional unity in which every component plays a meaningful part
Levi-strauss believed that myths are derived from?
-the structure of the mind. (which is binary; the mind is constantly dealing with pairs of contradictions or opposites)
-It is the function of the myth to mediate between the two opposing teams
Propp analyzed traditional tales into?
-into their constituent parts
- he thought Linear structure applicable to all Russian folktales (having an unchanging temporal sequence, so that one element in the myth always follows another and never occurs out of order)
He divided his theory into 32 functions or units of action. These functions are constants in traditional tales: the characters may change, but the functions do not
Propp divided theory.....
He divided his theory into 32 functions
-These functions are constants in traditional tales: (characters may change, but the functions do not)
what are the 4 parts a myth should be analyzed with?
1.perceptible pattern of structure will emerge
2.find the same structure in other myths, thus making it easier to organize the study of myths
3.possible to compare the myths cross-culturally
4.easier to appreciate the development of a myth prior to its literary position
What are the 4 theses Burket developed in defining a theory of myth?
1.Myth belongs to the more general class of traditional tale
2.identity of a traditional tale is the be found in a structure of sense within the tale itself
3.Tale strucutres are founded on basic biological or cultural programs of actions
4.Myth is a traditional tale with secondary, partial reference to something of collective importance