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107 terms

SOC test 3

Social stratification
Groups have different accesst o resources, power and perceived social worth; a system of structured social inequality
Estate system
Ownership of property and the exercise of power is monopolized by an elite who have total control over societal resources. Most common in agricultural societies
Caste system
One's ascribed status (quality given to an individual by circumstances of birth) is that person's place in the system; ex: apartheid
Class system
a person's placement in the class system can change according to personal achievements, class depends on achieved status
Social class
social structural position groups hold relative to the economic, social, political and cultural resources of society
Life chances
Described by Max Weber; the opportunities that people have in common by virtue of belonging to a particular class
Status symbol
ordinary object given a "label" making it valuable
Indicators of class
income, education, place of residence
Status attainment
process by which people end up in a given position in the stratification system
Socioeconomic status (SES)
Derived from certain factors such as income, occupational prestige and education
Amount of money recieved in a given period
Wealth (net worth)
total owned minus debt
Median income for a society
Midpoint of all household incomes
value assigned to people/groups by others
Occupational prestige
subjective evaluation people give to jobs; more education needed, usually more occupational prestige
Educational attainment
total yrs of formal education
Upper class
owns major share of corporate and personal wealth; had wealth for generations or recently become rich; very small portion of society
Nouveau riche
those with newly acquired wealth
Upper middle class
High incomes and social prestige
Middle class
hard to define; very large portion of americans
Lower middle class
workers in skilled trades/low-income bureaucratic workers; aka working class
Lower class
displaced and poor; little formal education; often unemployed or working in minimum wage jobs
Urban underclass
has been added to the lower class; those who are likely to be permanently unemployed and without much means of economic support
Class conflict
from Karl Marx's conflict theory; interprets inequality as resulting from the unequal distribution of power and resources in society
Professional-managerial class
from conflict theory perspective; meaning middle class; includes managers, supervisors and professionals
net value of what one actually owns; add all financial assets and subtract debt; allows one to accumulate assets over generations
Melvin Oliver/Thomas Shapiro
The sedimentation of racial inequality; the persisting effects of discriminatory policies
Basis for US stratification
Class, age, ethnicity, national origin, gender
Myth of model minority
the idea that a minority group must adopt alleged dominant group values to succeed
a system in which one's status is based on merit or accomplishments, not other social characteristics
Social mobility
a person's movement over time from one class to another
occurring between generations
occurring within a generation
Closed class systems
Movement from one class to another is impossible
Open class systems
Placement in the class system is based on individual achievement, not ascription; loose class boundaries, high rates of class mobility, weak perceptions of class difference
Class consciousness
perception that a class structure exists along with a feeling of shared identification with others in one's class
False consciousness
class consciousness of subordinate classes who had internalized th view of the dominant class; Karl Marx used term; ruling class controls subordinate classes
Karl Marx: class and capitalism
Defined classes in a relationship to the means of production, the system by which goods are produced and distributed
Capitalist class
own the means of production
Working class via Marx
those who sell labor for wages
Petty bourgeoisie
small business owners and managers who identify with the interests of the capitalist class but do not own the means of production
those who have become unnecessary as workers and are then discarded (underclass, homeless, permanently poor)
belief system that supports the status quo
Class conflict
per Marx, working class would become dissatisfied with profits becoming concentrated in the hands of few capitalists, revolution as an inevitable result
Max Weber saw three dimensions to stratification (Mulitdimensional view of social stratification)
Class (economic demension), Status (prestige), Party (or power, political dimension)
Class (Weber)
economic dimension of stratification, how much access to the material goods of society oa group or individual has
Status (Weber)
the prestige dimension of startification, the social judgment of recognition given to a person or group
Party (Weber)
aka power; political dimension; capacity to influence groups and individuals even in the face of opposition
Functionalist perspective on inequality
Parts of society are in basic harmony; inequality servews an important purpose in society: motivates people to fill dft positions that are needed for survival of the whole; a reward system that motivates people to succeed
Conflict perspective on inequality
Society held together by conflict; groups struggle over resources and compete for social advantage; Social stratification based on class conflict and blocked opportunity
Poverty line
Determined by the gvt to be the amount of money needed to support the basic needs of a household; below this line, one is officially poor
Feminization of poverty
increasing proportion of the poor who are women and children; 1/3 of families headed by women are poor
Salience principle
categorize people based on what's obvious ex: skin color
Attitude: evaluation of group based on conceptions about the group despite facts that disprove them
Behavior: negative/unequal treatment of members of a group based on their membership in that group
Perception and tx of a racial group as inferior to one's own group
Old fashioned racism
Obvious, overt racism ex: physical assault
Aversive racism
Subtle, covert, nonobvious ex: avoiding interaction
Laissez-faire racism
aka symbolic racism; negative stereotyping, tendency to blame blacks for black/white gap, resistance to policy efforts
Color blind racism
chooses to ignore racial problems in america and think they will go away if ignored
Institutional racism
negative tx and oppression of one group by society's existing institutions bsed on teh presumed inferiority fo the oppressed group
Scapegoat theory
frustration turns to aggression directed toward minority groups
Aurthoritarian personality
authroitarian personality are more likely to be prejudiced against minorities than nonauthoritarian individuals
process byw hich a minor8ity becomes socially, economically and culturally absorbed within the dominant society:: Functionalist theory
maintenance and persistance of one's culture
Contact theory
Gordon Allport:: interaction between whites and minorities may reduce prejudice; three conditions: individuals must be of equal status, contact must be long term, and norms favoring equality must be agreed upon by participants:: symbolic interaction theory
Intersection perspective
the interactive or combined effects of racism, classism, and gender in the oppression of people
Assimilation perspective
belief for many Americans that with enough hard work and loyalty to the dominant white culture of the country any minority can manke it and thus "assimilate" into American society
Cultural pluralism
dft groups in society maintaining their distinctive cultures while also coexisting peacefully with the dominant group
a pattern of extreme segregation
Gender socialization
process through which men and women learn the expectations associated with their sex; Parents most important source, school, religion, media, popular cultureed`1d
Gender identity
one's definition of oneself as a woman or man
Gendered institutions
total pattern of gender relations that structure social institutions, including stereotypical expectations, interpersonal relationships,a nd the different placement of men and women that are found in institutions
Gender stratification
the hierarchical distribution of social and economic resources according to gender
Gender apartheid
extreme segregation and exclusion of women from public life
a society or group in which men have power over women
society or group where women have power over men
Labor force participation rate
percent of those in a given category who are employed either part time or full time
Human capital theory
result of differences int he indiviual characteristic st aht worker bring to jobs; assumes that the economic syste m is fair and competitive adn that wage discrepancies reflect differences in the resources that individuals bring to jobs
dual labor market theory
women and men make dft amounts because they work in different segments of the labor market:: primary market (jobs stable, good wages, advancement opportunities) vs secondary market (high turnover, low wages, nonexistent promotion ladders)
Gender segregation
a pattern in which different groups of workers are separated int o occupational categories based on gender
Occupational segregation
segregation in the labor market based on factors sucha s race, class, age or any combination thereof
practicies that single out some groups for different and unequal treatment; ex: sexual harrassment
Functionalism and gender
men fill instrumental roles in society where women fill expressive roles; arrangment works to benefit society
Conflict theory and gender
women are disadvantaged by power inequities between women and men that are built into social structure
Symbolic interaction adn gender
people produce gender through the interaction they have with one antoher and through the interpretations they have of certain actions and appearances
refers to advocating a more just society for women
Feminist theory
analyses that seek to understnad the position of women in society fo rthe xplicit purpose of imporving their position in society
Liberal feminism
inequality for women originates in traditions of the past that pose barriers to women's advancement
Socialist feminism
interprets the origins of women's oppression in the capitalist system
Radical feminism
interprets patriarchy as the primary cause of women's oppression
Multiracial feminism
most recent; examines the interactive influence of gender, race, and class, showing hwo together they shape the experiences of all women and men
Comparable worth
paying women and men equivalent wages for jobs of similar skill level
socially defined and patterned
"Natural behavior"
behavior accepted by cultural customs and sanctioned by social institutions
Sexual orientation
attraction that people feel for people of the same of different sex; implies something deeply rooted in a person
Sexual identity
definition of oneself that is formed around one's sexual relationships; LEARNED through the context of our relationships; Not based on sexual processes
Sexual scripts
teach us what is appropriate sexual behavior for each gender
Social construction perspective
used by symbolic interactionists to interpret sexual identity as learned, not inborn
Coming out
process of defining oneself as gay/lesbian
Queer theory
evolved from recognizing the socially constructed nature of sexual identity; interprets society as forcing sexual boundaries on people; challenges the idea that only one form of sexuality is normal and all other forms are deviant or wrong
Sexual politics
the link between sexuality and power, not just within individual relationships
International sex trade
aka "traffic in women"; the use of women worldwide as sex workers in an institutional context where sex itself is commodity
Sex capitals
where prostitution openly flourishes; ex: Thailand, Amsterdam
the institutionalization of heterosexuality as the only socially legitimate sexual orientation
sought to apply the scientific principles of genetic selection to improve the offspring of the human race
Sexual revolution
the widespread changes i mens and womens roles and a greater public acceptance of sexuality as a normal part of social development