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inorganic compounds

usually are small and lack carbon.

organic substances

always contain carbon usually contain hydrogen and always have covalent bonds


is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions and serves as a lubricant. It also has a high capacity for absorbing heat and a high heat of vaporization

water molecules

have many hydrogen bonds making it cohesive and causing it to have a high surface tension.

body fluids

have a PH which must remain fairly constant to maintain homeostasis


is represented by 7 on the pH scale

Acidic solutions

are below 7 on the pH scale

Alkaline solutions

are above 7 on the pH scale

Normal blood pH

7.35 - 7.45

buffer systems

remove or add H+ ions to help maintain pH homeostasis

Carbonic acid - bicarbonate

one of the important buffer sytems

Bicarbonate ion (HCO3)

enables carbon dioxide to be carried safely int he blood stream


another important buffer in the transport of respiratory gases

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