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Terms in this set (23)
Describe the chemical equation of respiration.
C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 ---> 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy
Explain why ATP is required in the prepatory steps of respiration(glycolysis)
To create an unstable glucose molecule by adding ATP (major key 🔑)
Write the summary flow chart for glycolysis.
1. This glucose molecule is broken down using 2 ATP molecules that was previously stored in the cell. This forms a C6 molecule that can now be transformed into 2 PGAL C3 molecules
2. The Glucose molecules then undergoes multiple chemical reactions that split the 6-Carbon molecules into two 3-Carbon PGAL molecules
3. The energy from the two PGAL molecules are then used to make 4 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of NADH. The end result of glucoylsis process are 2 molecules of Pyruvic Acid and 2 ATP molecules
Write a summary flow chart of the Krebs cycle.
The Krebs cycle is a continuing Series of Reactions. The Cycle begins with a single Pyruvic Acid Molecule. The molecule is broken down into carbon dioxide and a 2-Carbon Acetyl group, which bonds to a large complex known as Coenzyme A.
The complex passes 2 carbons in Acetyl group into the Krebs cycle where they join a 4-Carbon compound to produce citric acid(6-C)
As C6 moves around, pair of high energy electrons are accepted(?) by electron carriers, changing NAD+ to NADPH. 2 Co2 molecules are released. C6 is transformed into C4
C4 meets GDP, which converts into GTP. GTP is used to make ATP from ADP
FAD+ is converted into FADPH and NAD+ is changed into NADH
Describe the fate of Pyruvic acid if oxygen is not present.
Without oxygen, Pyruvic acid goes into fermentation. In plants, fermentation creates alcohol. And in animals, it creates lactic acid.
List the carriers in the Krebs cycle. (Molecules that accept hydrogen)
NAD+ and FAD
Describe the role of oxygen in the Krebs Cycle.
Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration to take place.
Will glucoylsis take place with and without oxygen?
What are the 2 metabolic pathways a cell can use?
Aerobic(Krebs) and anaerobic(Fermentation)
Why is chemiosmosis(oxidative phosphorylation) essential in the production of energy?
In chemiosmosis, ADP is bonded with P to create ATP, which is energy. This happens as hydrogen ions are coming back inside the matrix through the ATP Synthase
In chemiosmosis, NADH and FADH2 are broken down. In the presence of oxygen, H ions are eleased.
Two pair of electrons going through electron transport. Hydrogen ions bond with oxygen to create water.
Describe the breakdown of FADH2 and NADH. How are H2O and ATP formed?
give up their electrons to a component of the electron transport chain. Then these electrons are passed to the next component of the chain. Each time an electron is passed from one component to the next they release some energy. This produces
. This energy is used to move hydrogen ions against their concentration gradient into the intermembrane space. Once the electrons reach the last protein in the chain, cyctochrome a3, they react with the hydrogen ions to form hydrogen. Hydrogen then reactions with oxygen to form
In what structure does the process of respiration take place?
Cytoplasm and/or mitochondria?
Where does the process of glycolysis take place?
Where does the process of Krebs take place?
Matrix of the Mitochondria
Where does the process of Oxidative Phosporylation take place?
inner membrane of the Mitochondria
What is Chemiosmosis?
The process of breaking down NADH, FADH2 and producing H2O and ATP.
Diagram the Krebs cycle.
Diagram the overview of respiration
What are the end products of the krebs cycle?
6 NADH molecules -->chemiosmosis
2 FADH2 molecules --> chemiosmosis
2 ATP --> usable immediately
6 CO2 (carbon dioxide) - waste product diffuses out of cell
What are the events of the Krebs Cycle?
- Two carbon atoms are added to the breakdown of Pyruvic Acid
- 6 molecules of NAD+ converted to NADH
-2 molecules of FAD converted to FADH
-2 molecules of GDP converted to GTP then to ATP
-6 Carbon atoms are removed(in 6 molecules of CO2)
When something ends in -ase, what is it?
When something ends in -ose, what is it?
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