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psych 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4
Terms in this set (49)
stimulus definition of stress
Stress as a demanding or threatening event or situation because they cause certain reactions; fail to recognize that people differ in how they view and react to challenging life events and situations
Stress in ways that emphasize the physiological responses that occur when faced with demanding or threatening situations because they describe stress as a response to environmental conditions
a famous stress researcher, once defined stress as the "response of the body to any demand, whether it is caused by, or results in, pleasant or unpleasant conditions; response based.
A process whereby an individual perceives and responds to events that he appraises as overwhelming or threatening to his well-being
involves judgment about the degree of potential harm or threat to well-being that a stressor might entail.
if one anticipates that it could lead to some kind of harm, loss, or other negative consequence
if one believes that it carries the potential for gain or personal growth.
judgment of the options available to cope with a stressor, as well as perceptions of how effective such options will be; triggered by the perception of a threat
(from the Greek eu = "good"), is a good kind of stress associated with positive feelings, optimal health, and performance.
When stress exceeds this optimal level, it is no longer a positive force—it becomes excessive and debilitating
The scientific study of how stress and other psychological factors impact health falls within the realm of
a subfield of psychology devoted to understanding the importance of psychological influences on health, illness, and how people respond when they become ill
One of the early pioneers in the study of stress an eminent American physiologist at Harvard Medical School; was the first to identify the body's physiological reactions to stress.
occurs when a person experiences very strong emotions—especially those associated with a perceived threa
During the fight-or-flight response
the body is rapidly aroused by activation of both the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system; helps prepare the person to either fight or flee from a perceived threat.
discovered that when exposed to prolonged negative stimulation (stressors)—such as extreme cold, surgical injury, excessive muscular exercise, and shock—the rats showed signs of adrenal enlargement, thymus and lymph node shrinkage, and stomach ulceration
general adaptation syndrome
the body's nonspecific (independent of what that stressor is) physiological response to stress
3 stages of general adaptation syndrome
(1) alarm reaction, (2) stage of resistance, and (3) stage of exhaustion
doesn't take psychology into account
describes the body's immediate reaction upon facing a threatening situation or emergency, and it is roughly analogous to the fight-or-flight response described by Cannon.
stage of resistance.
During this stage, the initial shock of alarm reaction has worn off and the body has adapted to the stressor. Nevertheless, the body also remains on alert and is prepared to respond as it did during the alarm reaction, although with less intensity
stage of exhaustion
the person is no longer able to adapt to the stressor: the body's ability to resist becomes depleted as physical wear takes its toll on the body's tissues and organs.
2 systems used when experience stress
Sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
Sympathetic nervous system
triggers arousal via the release of adrenaline from the adrenal glands. Release of these hormones activates the fight-or-flight responses to stress, such as accelerated heart rate and respiration.
which is primarily endocrine in nature, becomes especially active, although it works much more slowly than the sympathetic nervous system.
hypothalamus and stress
releases corticotrophin-releasing factor, a hormone that causes the pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) --> cortisol production
is commonly known as a stress hormone and helps provide that boost of energy when we first encounter a stressor, preparing us to run away or fight; prolonged high levels --> weakened immune system and depression
include events that persist over an extended period of time
involve brief focal events that sometimes continue to be experienced as overwhelming well after the event has ended,
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
a chronic stress reaction characterized by experiences and behaviors that may include intrusive and painful memories of the stressor event, jumpiness, persistent negative emotional states, detachment from others, angry outbursts, and avoidance of reminders of the event ; individuals who are exposed to stressors of extreme magnitude
he Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS),
consisting of 43 life events that require varying degrees of personal readjustment
the minor irritations and annoyances that are part of our everyday lives
a work situation that combines excessive job demands and workload with little discretion in decision making or job contro
contribute to job strain
heavy workload and uncertainty about and lack of control over certain aspects of a job
general sense of emotional exhaustion and cynicism in relation to one's job
job burnout's first dimension
a sense that one's emotional resources are drained or that one is at the end of her rope and has nothing more to give at a psychological level.
job burnout's second dimension
depersonalization: a sense of emotional detachment between the worker and the recipients of his services, often resulting in callous, cynical, or indifferent attitudes toward these individuals.
Third, job burnout
haracterized by diminished personal accomplishment, which is the tendency to evaluate one's work negatively
refers to mental and behavioral efforts that we use to deal with problems relating to stress, including its presumed cause and the unpleasant feelings and emotions it produces.
one attempts to manage or alter the problem that is causing one to experience stress
consists of efforts to change or reduce the negative emotions associated with stress. These efforts may include avoiding, minimizing, or distancing oneself from the problem, or positive comparisons with others
-treats symptoms rather than cause
is our beliefs about our personal capacity to exert influence over and shape outcomes, and it has major implications for our health and happiness
can be thought of as the soothing impact of friends, family, and acquaintances
An acquired a belief of helplessness toward a situation
Three kinds of attributions for this outcome: internal vs. external (believing the outcome was caused by his own personal inadequacies or by environmental factors), stable vs. unstable (believing the cause can be changed or is permanent), and global vs. specific (believing the outcome is a sign of inadequacy in most everything versus just this area).
Can be thought of as the soothing impact of friends, family, and acquaintances
Focusing on racial identity
refers to the process by which a person comes to feel as if he belongs to a given racial group; this may increase a sense of pride associated with group membership
refers to the options available as a function of the anger evoked by racial prejudice and discrimination
The relaxation response
combines relaxation with transcendental meditation and consists of four components
1. sitting upright on a comfortable chair with feet on the ground and body in a relaxed position
2. a quiet environment with eyes closed
3. repeating a world phrase - a mantra - to ones self
4. Passively allowing the mind to focus on pleasant thoughts such as nature or the warmth of your blood nourishing your body
developed by gary scwartz; technique that use electronic equipment to accurately measure a person's neuromuscular and autonomic activity seen in visual or auditory signals that way the person can develop strategies to help gain some level of voluntary control over involuntary bodily processes