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Anthropology Test 4
Terms in this set (63)
Concept of Race (cultural construction)
Is a cultural category rather than biological reality
-derived from contrasts perceived and perpetuated in particular societies
-only cultural constructions of human race are possible
-viewed differently from place to place because the traits that are considered are different
-not biologically distinct
Race in the census
-1960 people were classified by appearance
-1970 people could choose a category
-1990 white, black or negro etc
-300 people for the first time could self identify as being multi racial
-2.4% identified themselves as belonging to more than one race
-7 million in total with over half being under 18 years old
-2010 2.9% self identified as belonging to more than one race
Perceived cultural differences between people
Autonomous, centrally organized political entity
Children of a union between members of different groups.
Devaluation of group because of assumed behavior, values, capabilities, or atrributes
fixed, often unfavorable ideas about what the members of a group are like
policies and practices that harm a group and its members
Forcing an ethnic group to adopt the culture of a dominant group
Deliberate elimination of a group through mass murder
Destruction of an ethnic group's culture
removal of groups that are culturally different from a country
Cultural diversity is accepted
-Seeks people to help understand and interact with respect for differences
-In the U.S. and Canada: increasing ethnic variety in host nations, particularly the "developed" countries of North America and Europe due to immigration
-related to globalization
-one response to ethnic diversification and awareness is for many people to reclaim ethic identities
Ethnic groups maintain their own distinct heritage
-can be done where there is fairly equal status among them
+economically independent of one another
+depend on each other and exchange
+ethnic boundaries most stable and enduring when groups occupy different ecological niches
Identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affliliation
-The perceived cultural differences between people
-usually the group that people themselves choose "Ethnic Identity"
Application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, asses, and solve contemporary social problems
Applied Anthropology today
-Applied anthropologist are likely to adopt local, grassroots perspective in approaching problem
-Roles for applied anthropologist:
+identifying locally perceived needs for change
+create workable solutions with local people as opposed to for local people keeping in mind cultural traits and values
+protecting interests of local people
Importance of holism and ethnographic method
-Participatory observation and key informant interviewing
An analysis of a society as a whole which refuses to break society into component parts.
Branch of applied anthropology focused on social issues in, and the cultural dimension of, economic development
Help plan and guide policy for economic development and poverty reduction
+planners' interests not in best interests of locals
Financially sound programs that do not exploit nonrenewable resources
Include local indigenous groups into the decision making process
-Empower groups to produce and provide for their own needs
Too much change
-Development projects must avoid overinnovation to be successful:
+People generally resists development projects that require major changes in their daily lives.
+Development projects need to be sensitive to traditional cultures and the specific concerns of people
Tendency to view less-developed countries as more alike than they truly are
+most productive strategy for change is to base the design on traditional social and cultural characteristics in each target area
cross-cultural and ethnographic study of global urbanization and life in cities
Study of disease, health problems, health care systems, and theories about illness in different cultures and ethnic groups
Colonialism and European expansion
White Man's Burden
England's approach - replace values and behaviors
Political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time
Agents of Directed Change
Missionaries, education, political control and economics
Conversion of indigenous groups led to native practices being changed
Effective way to change native culture
European methods of social control/laws applied
Movement to a cash economy
-Exploration and colonialism led to the discovery of new foods and resources
-Local people did not monocrop
-Colonists taxed subsistence farmers thus forcing certain crops to be grown
-World trade and culture change impacted by domestication of sugar
Government should not regulate private enterprise and market forces
An ideology in which outsiders seek to justify their intervention in the social, cultural, economic and affairs of a usually internationally marginalized group, such as seen in colonialism, missionary and economic development.
-Money loaned to countries mostly through the World Bank.
-Assist countries to improve infrastructure.
-Help nations to progress and improve lives.
-Many cultures not ready to be "modernized".
-Continued the erosion of indigenous cultures.
-Economic growth critical to modernization and to pay back loans.
-2 strategies as approved by World Bank and IMF:
1) Increase economic productivity and trade (new markets and new forms of agriculture)
2) Reduce government spending to reduce debt
Neocolonialism/Impact of Multinational Corporations
Neocolonialism includes the power of multinational corporations in controlling the direction and culture of developing countries
World Systems Theory
Identifiable social system, based on wealth and power differences, which extends beyond individual states and nations
-Wallerstein: nations occupy positions of economic and political power
Dominant position in the world system.
-Strongest, most powerful nations
-"Complexity of economic activities and the level of capital accumulation is the greatest" (Thompson)
Industrialized nations that export industrial goods and commodities but lack power of core nations
World's least privileged and powerful countries
-Produce raw materials, agricultural commodities, and human labor for export to the core and semiperiphery
Spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others.
-Imposition of values and cultural traits on societies
-Local culture is then changed or modified (maybe even replaced or destroyed)
-Modern technologies, particularly the mass media, act as agents of cultural imperialism by erasing cultural differences
Offspring of an area who have spread to many lands
People with a well founded fear of persecution or people escaping from environmental tragedies.
-Lives unstable/families broken up
-Constantly have to redefine themselves legally and culturally
-Spend many years in refugee camps before being relocated
People who move from one region to another
-Millions of people live outside their country of origin
-Usually move in search of economic prosperity
-Government have typically fluctuated in their policies regarding migrants.
People who move within the borders of their own country
Leave temporarily but return to country of origin
Highly educated people with specialized skills who move due to employment opportunities
People who leave their country of citizenship to live permanently in another country
The Process by which immigrants build links with both country of origin and country of settlement.
-Has replaced assimilation as lines of communication, technology and travel have made it no longer necessary to assimilate to a new culture.
-Socially: Staying in contact with family
-Politically--keeping track of current events
"Economically" a sum of money sent in payment for goods or services or as a gift
Are groups protected in international or national legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their linguistic and historical ties to a particular territory, their cultural and historical distinctiveness from other populations.
Modified to fit the local culture
Describes our time and situation.
-Includes a world in which groups, boundaries, identities and standards are all in a flux and continuously changing
-Often a result of people in motion:
+Where they go and impact on local culture
+How they themselves change
+How they maintain ties to their home and original culture