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Development of Spinal locomotor circuits (2)
Terms in this set (23)
Two general techniques to study the locomotor CPG:
1. electrophysiological studies
2. anatomical tracing studies
Intracellular recording from single neurons, or extracellular recordings from groups of neurons during locomotion.
Anatomical tracing studies
Anterograde/retrograde tracers to visualize axonal projections of neurons
As long as the _____ region of the spinal cord is in tact, you get locomotion.
Two main problems with using these techniques to investigate the locomotor CPG:
1. Number of neurons in the mammalian spinal cord.
2. The extent to which these cells are intermingled.
Mammalian spinal cord has a ____ distribution.
The fate of a cell is determined by its
Transcriptional programs result in the expression of
particular genes at specific times during embryogenesis.
BMP is released from the _____
SHH is released from the _____
____ cells respond to BMP release from the _____
Dorsal; neural crest cells / roof plate
______ cells respond to SHH release from the
Ventral; notochord / floor plate.
BMPs phosphorylate ____, which translate to cell nucleus to regulate gene expression. This results in ____ dorsal interneuronal cell populations.
SMAD proteins; 6
SHH binds to ____, which activates ____, which in turn activates ____ transcription factor which regulates gene expression. ___ ventral populations result.
patched; smoothened; Gli; five.
Transcription factors are only expressed from ____
These cell populations can be followed from their birth to functional maturity using
transgenic mice that express reporter genes
The TF ____ is expressed in all V0 interneurons from E10.5-E12.
V0 interneurons can be visualized postnatally using a
Dbx1 Lac Z mouse.
V0 cells are located almost exclusively in ____ of the spinal cord.
V0 cells contact ____ motoneurons.
V0 cells are ____ during locomotion, out of phase with contralateral motor neuron bursting.
V0 cells play a role in coordinating _____ during walking.
Lack of V0 cells results in
aberrant left/right alternation.
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