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Cognitive Maps (2)
Terms in this set (20)
hippocampal neurons that become active in a particular location.
Grid cells in entorhinal cortex:
neurons that become active in specific, regularly spaced locations.
Head direction cells:
active when head points in a certain direction with respect to the environment.
active at boundaries between territories
firing rate is related to animal's speed.
1. Combination of activity in many ___ cells provides an internal neural map representing an environment.
2. ___ cells provide a measure of distance in the environment that aids in navigation.
3. _____ orient the animal with respect to grid.
4. ____ assist in navigation.
3. Head direction
Problems with hypothesis that place cells form a cognitive map:
1. Rats with hippocampal damage get lost a lot, but humans with hippocampal damage have complex, non-spatial amnesia, particularly short-term memory.
2. So far no technique exists to detect human hippocampal place cells.
The reward centre of the brain is the
Medial forebrain bundle.
After the reward center was stimulated each time a place cell fired, the mouse spent _____ time in that cell's place field. Showed that memories can be _______ by reward stimulation.
4-5 times more; implanted
Feedback control: arm position signal is fed back to the ____, and compared with ____ to generate an error signal to be corrected.
CNS; desired position.
Feedforward controller generates an ___ command using visual info and _____ of the way muscles should be activated.
anticipatory; internal model (memory)
An example of an internal model for feedforward control is
the Smith predictor
Inverse model of system response compensates for _____, e.g. command to activate muscles is boosted briefly at onset of movement to compensate for ____. The controller goes in the system ___ the command.
nonlinearities of the system; slowness of muscle in moving load; before
Bilateral lesions of ____ abolish memory of obstacles.
posterior parietal cortex
Persistent activity in neurons in posterior parietal cortex when the cat is _____
straddling the object.
Mirror system for understanding
actions, goals and intentions of others
Mirror system pathway:
activity pattern in brain of actor --> actor's behaviour --> activity pattern in brain of observer similar to activity pattern in brain of actor
Mirror neurons fire the most when
the goal is known.
Mirror neurons exhibit ____ dependence: activity is ___ when intention of task in understood.
There are emotional mirror in the human ___ cortex.
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