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Terms in this set (41)
Citizens' attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events.
The induction of individuals into the political culture; the process of learning the underlying beliefs and values on which the political system is based.
agents of socialization
The social institutions, including families and schools, that help shape individuals' basic political beliefs and values.
A distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men.
generally supports political and social reform; extensive government intervention in the economy; the expansion of federal social services; more vigorous efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities, and women; and greater concern for consumers and the environment.
refers to those who generally support the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political formulas and economic arrangements. Many also believe that a large and powerful government poses a threat to citizens' freedoms.
The power to bring attention to particular issues and problems.
A process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or a political actor.
The power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted.
public opinion poll
The scientific instrument for measuring public opinion.
A small group selected by researchers to represent the most important characteristics of an entire population.
A method used by pollsters to select a representative sample in which every individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent.
random digit dialing
A poll in which respondents are selected at random from a list of 10-digit telephone numbers, with every effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample.
A polling error in which the sample is not representative of the population being studied, so that some opinions are over- or underrepresented.
A polling error that arises on account of the small size of the sample.
The failure to identify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions.
A polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent's opinion.
An attitude or view that is especially important to the individual holding it
illusion of salience
The impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when it actually is not.
A shift in electoral support to the candidate whom public-opinion polls report as the front-runner.
The problem of incomplete information—of choosing alternatives without fully knowing the details of available options
The problem of not knowing all aspects of the actions taken by an agent (nominally on behalf of the principal but potentially at the principal's expense)
An electoral format that presents the names of all the candidates for any given office on the same ballot. Introduced at the end of the eighteenth century; replaced the partisan ballot and facilitated split-ticket voting.
single member district
An electorate that is allowed to elect only one representative from each district—the typical method of representation in the United States.
The presidential electors from each state who meet in their respective state capitals after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president.
The apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one political party.
A type of electoral system in which victory goes to the individual who gets the most votes in an election, but not necessarily a majority of the votes cast.
A type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in a representative body, a candidate must receive a majority (50 percent plus 1) of all the votes cast in the relevant district.
A multiple-member district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the vote.
Law of politics, formalized by Maurice Duverger, stating that plurality-rule electoral systems will tend to have two political parties.
A measure proposed or passed by a legislature that is referred to the vote of the electorate for approval or rejection.
A process by which citizens may petition to place a policy proposal on the ballot for public vote.
The removal of a public official by popular vote.
An individual's attachment to a particular political party, which might be based on issues or ideology, past experience, or upbringing.
An individual's propensity to select candidates or parties based on the extent to which the individual agrees with one candidate more than others on specific issues.
Voting based on the imagined future performance of a candidate.
Voting based on the past performance of a candidate.
An issue for which a range of possible options or policies can be ordered, say, from liberal to conservative or from most expensive to least expensive.
median voter theorem
A proposition predicting that when policy options can be arrayed along a single dimension, majority rule will pick the policy most preferred by the voter whose ideal policy is to the left of half of the voters and to the right of exactly half of the voters.
An issue or aspect of a choice for which all voters prefer a higher value, in contrast to a spatial issue. For example, voters prefer their politicians to be honest, and honesty is this issue.
political action committee
A private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns.
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