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AP Human Geography
Chapter 1 Vocab
Terms in this set (58)
Pulling people into greater cultural and economic interaction with others. Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic.
An area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features. An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
A two dimensional or flat-scale model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it.
The relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole. Specifically, the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
The physical gap or interval between two objects.
Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
The science of mapmaking.
The scientific method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a flat map.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Divided much of the United States into a system of townships and ranges to facilitate the sale of land to settlers in the West. Initial surveying was performed by Thomas Hutchins, who was appointed geographer to the United States in 1781. After Hutchins death the responsibility for surveying was transferred to the Surveyor General.
A square of land 6 miles on each side.
Some of the north-south lines separating townships.
Some of the east-west lines separating townships.
One of the 36 divisions of a township. Each section is 1 mile by 1 mile.
GPS (Global Positioning System)
The system that accurately determines the precise position of something on Earth. GPS includes 3 elements: satellites (24 in operation and 3 in reserve); tracking stations (monitor and control the satellites) and a receiver that can locate at least 4 satellites, figure out the distance to each, and use this info to pinpoint its own location
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from other long-distance methods.
GIS (geographic information system)
A computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze and display geographic data.
The position that something occupies on Earth's surface, and in doing so consider four ways to identify location: place name, site, situation, and mathematical location.
The name given to a place on Earth, a portion of Earth's surface.
The physical character of a place. Important site characteristics include climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude, and elevation. A combination of physical features gives each place a distinctive character.
The location of a place relative to other places. Situation is a valuable way to indicate location for 2 reasons - finding unfamiliar place and understanding its importance.
An arc drawn between the North and South poles on a map that can help determine the location of any place on Earth's surface.
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian.
The meridian that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England is zero degrees longitude. The meridian on the opposite side of the globe from the prime meridian is 180 degree longitude.
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a glove and measuring distance north and south of the equator.
The way a region derives its unified character through a combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation. Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group.
Also known as the contemporary cultural landscape approach where each region has its own distinctive landscape that results from a unique combination of social relationships and physical processes. People, activities, and environment display similarities and regularities within a region and differ in some way from those of other regions. A region gains uniqueness from possessing not a single human or environmental characteristic, but a combination of them. An approach to geography that emphasized the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area.
Also known as a uniform or homogeneous region, is an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics.
GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)
Also known as UT or Universal Time is the time at the prime meridian (zero longitude) and is the master reference time for all points on Earth.
International Date Line
The line which for the most part follows 180 degree longitude, when crossing this line you move the clock back 24 hours, or one entire day, if you are heading eastward toward America. You turn the clock ahead 24 hours if you are heading westward toward Asia.
Also called a nodal region, is an area organized around a node or focal point. The characteristic chosen to define a functional region dominates at a central focus or node and diminishes in importance outward.
Also known as a perceptual region, is a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
An representation of a portion of Earth's surface. It depicts what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
The body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.
The geographic study of human-environment relationships.
Developed by human geographers Alexander von Humboldt and Carl Ritter in the nineteenth century which describes how the physical environment CAUSED social development.
States that even though the physical environment may limit some human actions, people have the ability to adjust to their environment to choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Substances that are useful to people, economically and technologically feasible to access, and socially acceptable to use.
A piece of land that is created by the Dutch by draining water from an area.
Also called multinational corporations, conduct research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters and principal shareholders are located.
The arrangement of a feature in space. There are 3 main properties of distribution across Earth - density, concentration and pattern.
The frequency with which something occurs in space.
The total number of objects in an area. It is commonly used to compare the distribution of population in different countries. Total number of people divided by the total land area.
The number of persons per unit of area.
The number of farmers per unit area of farmland.
The extent of a feature's spread over space. If the objects in an area are close together, they are clustered; if relatively far apart, they are dispersed. To compare the level of concentration most clearly, two areas need to have the same number of objects and the same size area.
The geometric arrangement of objects in space. Some features are organized in a geometric pattern, whereas others are distributed irregularly.
A term used to describe the reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place. It makes distant places seem less remote and more accessible. We know more about what is happening elsewhere in the world and we know it sooner. It promotes rapid change, as the culture and economy of one place reaches other places much more quickly than in the past.
A trailing-off phenomenon illustrated by the fact that the farther away one group is from another, the less likely the two groups are to interact. Contact diminishes with increasing distance and eventually disappears.
The process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time.
The place from which an innovation originates.
The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another.
The spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process. May result from one of 3 processes: hierarchical diffusion, contagious diffusion or stimulus diffusion.
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places.
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population (similar to the spread of a contagious disease like the flu)
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse.
The increasing gap in economic conditions between regions in the core and periphery that results from the globalization of the economy.
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