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Mapping A Changing World Quiz 4
Terms in this set (47)
Types of Web Maps
Analytic web maps: offer GIS analysis
Animated and realtime maps: MapQuest and Google Maps
Collaborative web maps
Static web maps: view only without animation or interactivity.
square bitmap graphics displayed in a grid arrangement to show a map.
Pre-rendered squares of different scales on a web map.
The services provided by a map. Sends web requests and parameters by the service code drawing a map. Ex) routing to destinations, finding places near you.
Open Web Mapping
Sharing and creating maps on the Internet using free and open source software (FOSS) and open specifications.
Strengths: security, ethics, free, flexibility.
Keyhole Markup Language (KML)
a file format used to display geographic data in an Earth browser such as Google Earth. You can create KML files to pinpoint locations, add image overlays, and expose rich data in new ways. KML is an international standard maintained by the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC).
Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI)
user-generated geographic content on the Internet.
Location based media: FB and Twitter
Collaborative: OSM, Wikimapia
Collecting data from the general public's info
Data open for everyone to view and edit
communities or networks of citizens who act as observers in some domain of science.
Location-based Social Media
adding a location to an existing social network so that people in the social structure can share location, which consists of the new social structure made up of individuals connected by the interdependency derived from their locations in the physical world as well as their location-tagged media content, such as photos, video, and texts.
Involves volume, velocity, and variety. It is a massive amount of data that requires more than just a single computer to sort through.
The maps that we each create in our minds to navigate the world around us and see the relationships between places.
Maps in the use of a story
Winnie the Pooh, lord of the rings, chronicles of Narnia, story maps.
Maps in advertising, society
Being local and remembered by the geographic location
Spatial Data Analysis
Application of operations to coordinate data and related attribute data often to solve a problem.
Can have multiple inputs and outputs
Spatial Operation/ Spatial Functions
Input--> Spatial operation--> Output
Applied sequentially, used to solve a spatial problem.
Layers of a map with a spatial operation applied.
The extent or area of the input data that are used in determining the values at output locations
3 different types.
input and output extent are the same. Neighboring values are not used.
Ex) find population density of Colorado
Uses data from input and nearby locations. Anything between local and global.
Ex) calculate number of neighboring states
uses the entire extent of spatial data to calculate local value.
Ex) Rank order by population in 1993
The layer of the earth that contains all landforms (the crust)
Ridges, valleys, mountains, ravine, cliff
Distinctive combinations of landform features and drainage patterns
A long and narrow hillside
A lower elevation pass that slopes gently between two higher elevation hills or peaks
Convex/ concave hillsides
An outward curving convex hillside has the opposite downslope contour arrangement-roughly parallel contours more widely spaced at the top of the hill and more closely spaced down the hillside.
Concave is steeper.
A deep narrow gorge with steep sides.
Administration, economics, culture, and technology.
Land Use/ Zoning
Zoning: the official land plan by the city
Land use: How the land is actually being used.
Reveal how land use evolved over time into the patterns we see today.
Statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it. Ex) average income in each county.
Using demographics to trace the cause and solutions to different disease outbreaks. Ex) map of Ebola infectees
Something that is happening on the ground in real life because of the map.
3D imaginary immersive space.
cartographic representation of ideas
Wearable computing is the study or practice of inventing, designing, building, or using miniature body-borne computational and sensory devices.
Smartphones with social media apps, and other applications that track your location.
Augmented reality is the integration of digital information with the user's environment in real time. Unlike virtual reality, which creates a totally artificial environment, augmented reality uses the existing environment and overlays new information on top of it.
In Crampton's article, "Cartography: maps 2.0", he argues that mapping is becoming both easier to access by amateurs and more professionalized at the same time. What does he consider one of the strengths of web mapping today?58
Crowdsourced data, open source tools and services, participation and syndication, and using the web as a platform.
In Haklay's article "How good is volunteered geographical information?", what did he find?
He found that Open Street Map data can be fairly accurate. This data backs the argument that volunteer geographical information can be accurate and reliable, as well as more readily available.
VGI can reach very good spatial quality.
What does Michael Goodchild argue in his article on Volunteered Geographic Information?
Examining the issues of websites promoting the use of volunteer geographic information. Are the results accurate, do they threaten individual privacy, and can they augment more conventional sources?
The examples in his article illustrate that VGI has the potential to be a significant source of geographers' understanding of the surface of the earth. It may be fair cheaper than any alternative, and it's products are available to all.
Describe a possible geographic Citizen science project.
A map that labels all GMO farms by state.
What factors contributed to the success of interactive web and mobile mapping?
Wifi internet, cloud-based computing, more data sources such as GPS, sensor networks, crowd sourcing.
What are the reasons why beer makers put maps on their beers?
So you will not only know the geographic location of where it was made, but you will associate that place with the beer and vice versa. Good advertising. An efficient way to get the brand out there.
Recommended textbook explanations
Pearson Earth Science
Earth and Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology
Holt Earth Science
Arthur T. DeGaetano, Jay M. Pasachoff, Mead A. Allison
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