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HSC 2200 EXAM 1
Terms in this set (56)
World Health Organization definition of health, 1947
a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity
group of people with common characteristics; race, age, location, interests, common bonds; characterized by membership
health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditions to promote, protect, and preserve their health
actions that society takes collectively (public and private efforts) to ensure the conditions in which people can be healthy; most inclusive term
coronary heart disease
chronic disease characterized by damage to the coronary arteries in the heart; number 1 killer of americans, noncommunicable, malignant neoplasms (cancer)
social security act 1935
marked governments first major involvement in social issues, including health; great depression and wwll
first u.s census
George Washington 1790, for the apportionment of representation in house of representatives; every 10 years; invaluable (useful) source of information for community health planning
healthy people 2020
4th set of health goals & objectives for the u.s that defines the nations health agenda and guides its health policy; current document
governmental health agencies
part of governmental structure (federal, state, or local) funded by tax dollars, managed by government elected officials, authority over some geographic area; four levels (international, national, state, local)
world health organization (WHO)
1945; largest, most widely recognized international governmental health organization; Geneva, Switzerland; not oldest; 6 offices PAHO; eradicate smallpox
department of health and human services (HHS)
U.S primary national health agency; headed by secretary of HHS, appointed by u.s president; largest department in the federal government, 25% of budget
centers for disease control and prevention CDC
the nations premiere health promotion, prevention and preparedness agency; global leader in public health; Atlanta, GA
public schools in the U.S
funded by tax dollars, under supervision of elected school board; great potential for impacting community health, face many barriers
quasi governmental health agencies
some official health responsibilities; operates like voluntary health organizations, independent of government supervision; derive some funding and work from gov; example: American red cross
American red cross
founded by Clara Barton, 1881; official duties are to provide relief to victims of natural disaster, serve as liaison between members of armed forces and their families during emergencies; U.S president is honorary chair
voluntary health agencies
created by one or more concerned citizens; most exist at national (research), state (links national with local offices), and local (carries out programming; paid staff and volunteers
four basic objectives of voluntary health agencies
raise money, provide education, provide services, and advocacy; fund raising is primary activity
professional health organizations/associations
health professional who have completed specialized training and met standards of registration and certification or licensure for their fields; promote high standards of professional practice; funded primarily by membership dues
service, social, and religious organizations
health is NOT primary misson, but make significant health related contributions
blank treatment; between 1/3 and 1/2 participants show improvements
person/organism invaded by an infectious agent under natural conditions
insect carrying a disease but not affected by it
study of distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specified populations; control health problems
occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course
outbreak of disease over wide geographic area (continent)
number of events that occur in a given population in a given period of time; adjusted by number of people
birth; number of live births divided by total population
fatality; number of deaths in a population divided by total population
number of people who are sick divided by total population at risk
number of new health related events or cases of a disease in a population exposed divided by total number in same population; acute disease (less than 3 months)
number of new and old cases of disease in a given period of time divided by total number in that population; chronic diseases; 3 months or longer
3 months or less (incidence rates)
longer than 3 months (prevalence rates)
special case of an incident rate calculated for a particular population for a single disease outbreak; expressed as percentage
the denominator includes total population; crude birth rate and crude death rate
measures morbidity and mortality for particular populations or disease
diseases that health officials request or require reporting for public health reasons; become potential epidemics
average number of years a person from a specific cohort is projected to live from a given point in time
years of potential life lost YPLL
number of years lost when death occurs before ones life expectancy (prematurely) 65 or 75
risk factors for disease
are variables/behaviors that increase the chances for developing a disease
group of people who share important demographic characteristics (year of birth)
infectious; caused by biological agent or its products that are transmittable from one individual to another
every 10 years; George Washington
how often is the U.S census conducted? Who was the pres who ordered it?
medicare and Medicaid; 1965
what other 2 additions (health insurance programs) are now included in the social security act?
-attain high quality longer lives free of preventable diseases, disability, injury, and premature death
-achieve health equity, eliminate health disparities, and improve the health of all groups
-create social and physical enviroments that promote good health for all
-promote quality of life, health development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages
what are the main goals mentioned for the healthy people 2020 initiative?
highly developed and centralized resources at national level, continue concentration of wealth and population in the largest metropolitan areas, rapid movement of (info, resources, and people; eliminates need for local offices), globalization of health, limited horizontal relationships among organizations, top down funding for many community programs
what are the factors limiting the ability of todays communities to respond effectively to their own health problems?
substance abuse prevention, substance abuse treatment, center for mental health services
what are the three centers of SAMHSA?
health care benefits
what is the main contribution of the corporate world to community health?
they allow for comparison of outbreaks at different times or in different places in a even/fair manner (they are proportions adjusted by the population affected)
what is the importance of using rates in order to compare different populations, instead of total numbers of disease
describes an epidemic with respect to person, place, and time
what are descriptive studies?
tests hypothesis about relationships between health problems and possible risk factors; case/control and cohort study
what are analytical studies?
case/control (retrospective) - compares those with a disease (cases) to those without for prior exposure to specific risk factors (at risk) aimed at identifying risk factors more common in the cases than in the control group; they are expensive, take years to complete,
-cohort (prospective) is classified by exposure to one or more risk factors and observed to determine rate of disease development. All subjects at risk and are followed up into the future
what is the difference between a retrospective (case/control) study and a prospective (cohort) study?
interventional; analytic studies in which the investigator allocates exposure and follows development of disease; carried out to identify cause of disease or determine the effectiveness of vaccine, drug, or procedure.
science gold standards are: control groups (treatment versus placebo), randomization (reduces personal biases), blinding (single= subjects don't know who is in control group; double= neither researchers, nor subjects know who is in control group)
what are experimental studies? what are the 3 principles ("gold standard") that characterize these studies? explain each of them.
the minimal requirement for occurrence and spread of communicable diseases
agent- the element that must be present for disease to occur, the cause of disease
host- is any susceptible organism invaded by an infectious agent
environment- all other factors that inhibit or promote disease transmission
what are the three elements in the communicable disease model (triangle)?
chronic lower respiratory or COPD
top 4 causes of death in our nation (in order of importance)
what is the top killing cancer in the U.S for both men and women?
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