APUSH period 9: 1980-present

As the United States transitioned to a new century filled with challenges and possibilities, it experienced renewed ideological and cultural debates, sought to redefine its foreign policy, and adapted to economic gobalization and revolutionary changes in science and technology

Terms in this set (...)

small influential group of thinkers who were supporters of Ronald Regan; acting against the 1960's liberalism; took tough anti-Soviet positions in foreign policy; championed free-market capitalism w/o gov't restraints; questioned liberal forms of welfare programs and affirmative action policies; encouraged traditional values, individualism, and the centrality of the family.
End of the Cold War
Agreements to dismantle nuclear weapons
bush and soviet leader signed treaties reducing number of nuclear warheads per side, offered US economic assistance to russian economy
Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
World Trade Center
Once an icon for the global economy in New York, became a target for terrorism in 1993 and 2001; al Queda was solely responsible for the 9-11 attacks
climate change
The issue of global warming and tension in the Middle East is causing debate on America's dependence on fossil fuels and the search for alternative, eco-friendly resources.
free trade agreements (NAFTA)
agreement with Mexico and Canada to allow goods to move across borders free of tariffs. Critics were concerned that it would lead to outsourcing and lower wages in the U.S.
Iran-Hostage Crisis
In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
"Star Wars"
Strategic Defense Initiative- ambitious plan to build high-tech system of lasers and particle beams to destroy enemy missiles before they could reach US territory. Critics argued costly program would only escalate arms race & could be overwhelmed by soviets building more missiles
demographic shifts in US population
-Over 36% of Americans claimed African, Asian, Hispanic, or Indian ancestry.
deregulation of industry and taxation
the lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities for which government rules had been established and that bureaucracies had been created to administer.
Ronald Reagan and Administration
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984; ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas;served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980; while president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives; cut out many welfare and public works programs; used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict; meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War
September 11, 2001 (causes and results)
a series of coordinated suicide attacks by Al-Qaeda upon the US on September 11, 2001. Over 3,000 people were killed. Many participants in the attacks were from Saudi Arabia. Catalyst of the War on Terror
war (conflicts) in Afghanistan
1979-1988: The war in this country was a nine-year proxy war during the Cold War involving the Soviet Union against the Afghan Mujahideen guerrilla movement. The mujahideen recieved unofficial military and/or financial support from a variety of countries including the United States, Saudi Arabia, the UK, Pakistan, and Israel
technology boom (computer technology, internet, etc.)
During Clinton's terms US enjoyed longest peacetime economic expansion in history technological inovation fueled national productivity. American businesses had become proficient at cutting costs, increased profitability & held down inflation rate. unemployment rate at all time low. lower-income americans experienced first gains in real income since 1973
religious fundamentalists
attacked "secular humanism" as godless creed taking over public education. campaigned to unseat liberal members of congress
Iran-Contra Affair
Government officials sold missiles to Iran (hoping to free hostages in Lebanon), money from the sale was used to aid the anit-communist Contra forces in Nicaragua. Big scandal for Reagan
"big government"
government perceived as excessively interventionist and intruding into all aspects of the lives of its citizens
interventionist foreign policy/foreign policy "failures"
A foreign policy defined mainly by getting involved with the business of other nations and had unofficially become the united states' at the dawn of the 21st century.
war of terrorism
Bush entered white house with no foreign policy experience but surrounded self with veterans of prior republican administrations. September 11, 2001. war in afghanistan- US pursuit of al-qaeda and osama bin laden
war (conflicts) in Iraq
Bush and Britain launched the long-anticipated invasion on Iraq on March 19, 2003. Saddam Hussein's vaunted military collapsed immediately. In less than a month, Baghdad had fallen and Saddam had been driven from power and into hiding
"Evil Empire"
Ronald Reagan's description of the soviet union because of his fierce anti-communist views and the USSRs history of violation of human rights and aggression
Christian ministers who devote a large portion of their ministry to television broadcasting.
supply-side economics
nickname given to the type of economy that Ronald Reagan brought before Congress; involved, among other things, a 25% tax cut that encouraged budgetary discipline and would hopefully spur investments; however, the plan was not a success and the economy was sent into its deepest recession since the 1930's
government social safety net
Programs (food stamps, unemployment insurance, Social Security, tax credits, etc.) that help the poorest and most vulnerable people stay out of extreme poverty.