Government final

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Terms in this set (...)

Australian ballot
electoral formal that presents the names of all the candidates for any given office on the same ballot
single member district
electorate that allowed to elect only one representative from each district
electoral college
presidential electors from each state who meet in their representative state capitals after the popular election to cast ballots for president and VP
gerrymandering
appointment of voters in districts in such a way to give unfair advantage to one political party
plurality rule
type of electoral system in which victory goes to the individual who gets the most votes in an election but not majority
majority rule
type of electoral system in which to win a seat in a representation body, a candidate must receive a majority vote
proportional representation
multiple member district system that awards seats based on percentage that won
referendum
measure proposed/passed by legislature to the vote of electorate for approval/rejection
initiative
process by which citizens may petition to place a policy proposal on the ballot for public vote
recall
removal of a public official by popular vote
issue voting
individuals propensity to select candidates/parties based on agreeance on issues
prospective voting
voting based on imagined future performance of candidate
retrospective voting
voting based on past performance
political action committee
private group that raises and distributes funds for election
political party
organized group that attempts to influence the government by electing its members into officies
nomination
process which political parties select their candidate for election to public
closed primary
primary election which only voters that are registered with party can vote before election day
open primary
primary election which voters can choose on election day which party to vote on
majority party
party that holds the majority of legislature seats in either house or senate
party ID
individuals attachment to a particular political party, which might be based on issues, ideologies and past experience
party activists
partisan who contributes time, energy and effort to support a party and its candidates
gender gap
a distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men
cacus
normally closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plan strategies
pluralism
theory that all interests are & should be free to compete for influence
interest group
organized group of individuals or organizations that makes policy related appeals to government
free riding
enjoying the benefits of some good or action while letting others bear the costs
informational benefits
special newsletters, training programs, conferences provided to members of groups of groups to entice others to join
material benefits
special goods, services, or money provided to members of groups to entice others to join
solidary benefits
selective benefits of group membership that emphasize friendship and networking
purposive benefits
selective benefits of group membership that emphasize the purpose and accomplishments of the group
lobbying
attempt by a group to influence the policy process through persuasion of government officials
going public
act of launching a media campaign to build popular support
grassroots lobbying
lobbying campaign in which a group mobilizes its membership to contact government officials in support of the groups position
hyper plural
there are so many interest groups that government cannot address all the interest group concerns
anomic interest groups
exhibit the lowest level of organization identity, spontaneously arising in response to a very specific event; can just suddenly dissolve
associational interest groups
highly structured groups with formal values, designated leadership, and official names known to members and nonmembers
direct game lobbying
interest groups make personal contact with elected officials in an attempt to persuade them to support the interest groups issue
amicus curiae
friend of the court
electioneering
practice of working actively to secure votes for a candidate in an election
1st amendment freedoms
parties have
dislocative power
democratic theory that suggests that political power flows from bottom-up, in modern democratic power flows top-down
functions of parties
seek to control government by electing their members to office and by controlling the personnel of government
ideological groups
not for direct economic interest, but for broader purpose
professional associations
maintain ethical standards within their respective professions
party column
more straight tickets
office block
more split tickets
nonpartisan
majority/runoff systems
blanket
switch parties between offices
early voting
anyone may participate, but the affluent turn out the most
absentee voting
restricted to soldiers and elderly students
restrictive policies
used in past to keep certain groups from voting: poll tax, annual registration, white primaries and women's sufferage
conflict between federalists and the republicans
cause of the two party system
realignments
large number of voters changing their party allegiance, larger voting participation, and change in party controlling the government
electoral realignments
shift in balance of power between two political parties and changes in american politics
party discipline
degree of control that a party's leadership has over its legislature
electoral and institutional reasons
why is party discipline low
Divided we govern
Mayhew talks about quality of laws passed, foreign policy, oversight of executive branch and coherence
iron triangle
systematic relationships exist among legislators, administrators and industry lobbyists
revolving door
same individual may occupy different sides of the triangle over the length of ones career
capture
occurs when legislators and administrators promote special interests rather than regulating them for public good
policy principle
political outcomes are the products of individual preferences and institutional procedures