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AP World History: River Valley Civilizations
Terms in this set (45)
5 things that define a civilization
Writing, government, religion, specialized labor, law
Prehistoric knowledge is compiled by:
Anthropologists (social/cultural), paleontologists (fossils), archaeologists (objects and buildings)
What is considered prehistorical?
Who comes up with theories and answers to the origins of humanity?
(9th century C.E.) Historians, biologists, zoologists, paleontologists
Early Hominids: Australopithecines
Started 3 to 4 million years ago (4 million B.C.E. to 1 million B.C.E.). They were the oldest fossils found in Great Rift Valley (Africa) (1950s - 1960s). LUCY - greatest find ever!
2-3 million years ago; first to do cave paintings, used crude stone tools
1.6-1.8 million years ago. Lived during the Stone Ages, used wooden tools and clothing. Homo Erectus walked upright, and were the first to migrate from Africa to Asia and Europe. They were to first to use fire.
True Humans (in order):
Homo Sapiens >> Neanderthal >> Cro-Magnon (Cro-Magnon considered Homo Sapiens Sapiens) >> Homo Sapiens Sapiens
Homo Sapiens (Neanderthal)
100,000-250,000 years ago. First to bury their dead.
60,000 years ago
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
also 100,000 to 250,000 years ago. Migrated to Australia, Arctic, Americas, Africa, Europe, Asia.
The Stone Age AKA Paleolithic
Homo Habilis and Homo Erectus existed. Used crude tools (rocks, clubs, caves). Homo Sapiens Sapiens used advanced tools (knife, spear, axe, bow & arrow, fishing, huts, clothes.)
Stone Age Society
extended families >> clans >> tribes
Hunting and Gathering
Primary source of food during Paleolithic era; men killed birds and animals (mammals like mammoths) and fished, while women gathered nuts and berries. Gender divided labor.
had chiefs, religious figures, and buried the dead.
Oldest Paleolithic paintings are estimated to be...
32,000 years old
Oldest Paleolithic instrument is estimated to be...
30,000 years old
domestication of animals; involved herding societies (nomadic)
What animal(s) were domesticated during the Paleolithic?
What animal(s) were domesticated during the Neolithic
horses, buffalo, oxen, llamas, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs
10,000 years ago (8,000 B.C.E): agriculture began in the Middle East with wheat and barley >> spread to Balkans (6,500 B.C.E) >> Nile Valley (6,000 B.C.E) >> Africa (5,500 B.C.E), and Europe (5,000 B.C.E)
communities with government, religion; cities with labor, trade, skills, and agriculture.
3 earliest civilized cities
1) 8,000 B.C.E. - Jericho (modern-day Jordan)
2) 7,500 B.C.E. - Catal Huyuk (modern-day Turkey)
3) 5,000 B.C.E - Danpo (modern-day China)
Paleolithic Societies (7 characteristics)
had camps, caves, tents, huts, hunting and gathering, tools (made of stone, wood and bone), nomadic groupings of 25-40 people
Neolithic Societies (6 characteristics)
had mud and stone houses, farming and herding, farming tools of stone, weaving, villages, early cities
NAME the first empires (there are 5)
Phoenicians/Lydians, Hebrews, Hittites, Assyrians/Babylonians, Celts
1) Resided in current day Syria/Lebanon around 3,000 B.C.E.
2) Economy included manufacture of lumber and dyes.
3) Known for their traders sailors, and large ships.
4) Created the first true alphabet (22 letters) >> Greeks and Romans used this alphabet.
1) Existed after 2,000 B.C.E.
2) Were first to believe in one god.
3) Politically weak, enslaved by Egyptians.
4) Conquered by Assyrians
5) Taken over by Neo-Babylonians
1) Lived in the ancient Middle East.
2) Appeared in Mesopotamia around 1,700 B.C.E.
3) First to use iron weapons
1) Assyria was the first TRUE empire. (911 to 612 B.C.E.)
2) Had 500,000 troops, iron weapons, and cavalry (horseback.)
3) Took over most of Middle East, including Mesopotamia and Egypt.
4) Neo-Babylonians took over from 626 to 539 B.C.E.
5) Known for the Hanging Gardens, which were built under Nebuchadnezzar's (King of Neo-Babylonia) rule.
1) First ethnic group to establish a widespread presence in Europe.
2) Society based on close-knit tribal groups.
3) Lived north of Dunabe River.
4) Remain in France, Britain, and Spain
5) 500 B.C.E. began to migrate.
6) No written language
7) Oral tradition - myths, songs, folklore
appeared 40,000 years ago
Paleolithic (Old Stone Age)
10,000 - 2.5 million years ago
Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age)
10,000 - 12,000 years ago
Neolithic (New Stone Age)
5,000 - 10,000 years ago
From the year ____ to the year _____ B.C.E., river systems in ____ ______, _____, and _____, gave birth to world's first four civilizations.
3,500 to 2,000
NAME the four River Valleys:
Mesopotamia, Egypt (Nile Valley), Indus Valley, Early China
1) A Sumerian-Babylonian civilization on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, starting 8,000 BCE.
2) Large scale agriculture started 5,000 BCE.
3) Mesopotamia was begun by Sumerians.
4) Many cities
5) Written language - Cuneiform
6) Hammurabi's law code
7) Skilled builders >>> temples, pyramids, ziggurats, pottery, metal working
5,000 years ago (3,000 BCE)
massive towers usually associated with Mesopotamian temple complexes... designed by the Sumerians
1) On the Nile River
2) Agriculture began 5,500 BCE
3) History begins 3,100 BCE when King Menes united upper and lower Egypt.
4) By 900 BCE, Egypt lost independence
6) Many cities
7) Women (not too inferior) - children, Queens, Priestesses
8) Gods and Goddesses
10) Life after death
11) Ra=Sun god
12) Book of the dead
13) tombs (pyramids)
15) written language (Hieroglyphics)
16) bronze tools and weapons
17) 365 day calender
1) Current-day Pakistan & India
2) Arose in 2600 BCE on Indus and Ganges rivers.
3) Written language (Sanskrit) cannot be translated.
4) Size of France, very large, urbanized, several hundred cities (Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro)
5) Centralized government
6) Metal tools, precious stones, trade
7) Downfall due to environment
1) Along the Yellow and Yangzte Rivers
2) 8,000 BCE - Neolithic cultures formed
3) Agriculture - wheat, millet, rice
4) 2,000 BCE - Bronze working, Xia Dynasty
5) 1750 BCE - Shang Dynasty, trade, silk, jade, written language (pictograms)
6) Religion - fortune telling, ancestor worship, Confucianism, Daoism.
7) Warring states period.
Early China: Dynasties (3)
Xia (2,000 BCE)
Shang (1750 - 1027 BCE)
Chou (1027 - 221 BCE)
Egypt: Kingdoms (3)
Old Kingdom (2575 - 2134 BCE)
Middle Kingdom (2134 - 1640 BCE)
New Kingdom (1640 - 1070 C.E.)
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