22 terms

ANTH 240B: Chapter 10: Writing Systems

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Writing
A graphic (visual) representation of units (morphemes, syllables, phonemes) of speech.
Logographic Writing (word-writing)
The symbols stand for whole words or morphemes.
Syllabic Writing
Each symbol represents one syllable.
Aphabetic Writing
Each symbol, ideally, represents one specific phoneme.
Logograms (ideograms)
Written symbols that represent a concept or word without indicating its pronunciation.
Pictogram (pictograph)
A logographic symbol that is a simplified picture-like representation of the thing it represents.
Logophonetic
Refers to a writing system that uses predominantly logographic symbols, but also includes symbols (or elements of the logographic symbol) that represent sound.
Logo-syllabic
Refers to a logophonetic system that includes both logographic and syllabic representations.
Phonetization
Refers to the process whereby logographic symbols come to represent sounds.
Rebus Principle
Refers to the process by which symbols, which once stood for whole one-syllable words, become symbols for those syllables, not the words they onced represented.
Non-inflecting Language
A language with no (or few) inflectional morphemes.
Homophones
Words that sound the same but have different meanings.
Graphemes
Alphabetic symbols.
Homographs
Words that differ in meaning but are spelled the same.
Homonyms
Homophones and homographs that are pronounced the same.
Heteronyms
Homographs that are not pronounced the same.
Spelling Pronunciation
The process by which a word is pronounced as it is spelled, even if that pronunciation was not original or intended pronunciation. This often occurs for foreign words that enter a language.
Descriptive- Representative
Depiction has a like-life (emblematic) relationship to what it represents.
Identifying-mnemonic Representations
Visual aids that are used to make calculations or are meant to identify or remind the viewer of specific person, event, song, legend, or trail.
Northern Semitic Syllabary
A group of primarily syllabic writing systems developed by Semitic peoples from earlier logophonetic systems.
Diffusing (diffusion)
The process whereby a cultural item moves from one geographic area to another.
Stimulus Diffusion
The process by which an idea, but not the actual cultural item, spreads from one geographical area to another.