69 terms

Agriculture review

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Terms in this set (...)

Agribusiness
The set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes. It includes activities ranging from seed production to retailing to consumption of agricultural products
Agriculture
The art and science of producing food from the land intending livestock for the purpose of human consumption
Aquaculture
The cultivation or farming of aquatic species such as fish. In contrast to commercial fishing which involves catching wild fish
Biotechnology
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes
commercial agriculture
All agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling not necessarily for local consumption
Commodity chains
A link system processes that gather resources convert them into goods package them for distribution dispersed them and sell them on the market
Dairying
And agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock most commonly cows and goats for dairy products such as milk cheese and butter
Desertification
The process by which formerly fertile lands become increasingly arid unproductive and desert like
Domestication
conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves
Extensive agriculture
Requires limited labor inputs or is spread across large areas of land or both
Intensive agriculture
Requires lots of labor inputs or is focused on the small plot of land or both
Feedlots
Places were livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains to prepare them for slaughter much more rapid rate than grazing, often referred to as factory farms
Fertile Crescent
Area located in the crescent shaped zone near the south eastern Mediterranean coast including Iraq Syria Lebanon and turkey which was once a lush environment and one of the first hearths of domestication and this agricultural activity
Genetically modified foods
Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, amd efficiency
Green revolution
The development of higher-yielding and fast growing crops through increased technology pesticides and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to Alliviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe
Hunting and gathering
The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits roots nuts and other plants for sustenance
Intensive cultivation
Any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield
Labor-intensive agriculture
Type of agricultural that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful
Livestock ranching
And extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock overpass geographic spaces typically located in semi arid climates like the American West
Mediterranean agriculture
And agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean style climates of Western Europe California and portions of chili and Australian in whichever specialty crops such as grapes avocados olives and a host of nuts fruits and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operations
Pastoralism
A type of agricultural activity based on pneumatic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food clothing and shelter
Plantation
A large frequently or an old piece of agricultural land diverted to the production of a single export crops
Shifting cultivation
The use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost plots are then abandoned and farmers move on to new sites
Slash and burn agriculture
System of cultivation that usually exist in tropical areas vegetation is cut close to the ground and then ignited. The fire introduces nutrients into the soil thereby making a productive for a relatively short period of time
Swidden
Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash and burn method
Transhumance
The movement of why stock according to seasonal patterns generally lower lands areas in the winter and highland areas in the summer
Subsistence farming
Found in LDC, The production of food primarily for consumption by the farmers family
Commercial agriculture
Found in MDC,production of food primarily for sale off the farm
Crop rotation
Occurs when one crop is planted on the plot of land and then switch to another plot in subsequent years
Double cropping
Implies planting to crops one after another on a single plot in a year
Overgrazing
Has led to significant amounts of dry grasslands being denuded voted in as a result the desertified
Desertification
Any healing process the terms of vegetated environment into a desert like landscape
Defirestation and soil salinization
Other than overgrazing, what two things can lead to desertification
Seed agriculture
Where the fertilized seed grains and fruits of plants were collected and replanted together
Deliberate modification of the earth surface there cultivation of plans and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain
Agriculture is best defined as
Hunting and gathering
The first humans obtained food by
Domestication
The process by which wild animals were utilized for human benefit is best described as
Foraging
Another term for hunting and gathering is
A
All of the following are true about hunters and gatherers except
A. They live in groups of 100 or more people to share the labor load
B.manhunt game or
fish in the women collected beans nuts and roots
C.travel frequently based on the movement of game in seasonal growth of plants
D.kept clear of others territories
E.during tryouts the supply of fruits and berries were limited contributing to starvation
First agricultural revolution
Obtaining food shifted from hunting and gathering to planting crops describes what
Green revolution
Also referred to as the third agricultural revolution
Northern europe
Where was the birth of the second agricultural revolution
The second agricultural revolution
During which agricultural revolution did thunen develop his model
E
The impact of railroads on society during the second agricultural revolution can be seen in all of the following except
A.The railroads encourage further industrial growth
B.The river is provided new jobs and transportation
C.The river is allowed for agriculture to begin in regions that were not previously used
D.The river is a lot for
people to travel further and more quickly
E.The Rovers came under criticism for the distraction of the natural landscape
Rural to urban
What describes the migration patterns in Europe during the second agricultural revolution
B
All of the following are true about the green revolution except
A.takes place mainly in science laboratories
B.only tested on farms in MDC
C. Allows for plants and animals the current conditions they normally would not
D. The to the increase in industrial farming
E.wheat rice and corn for the first crops to alter their characteristics
Third agricultural revolution
Which agricultural revolution corresponds with the exponential population growth occurring around the world
E
All of the following describe the first agricultural revolution except
A. Allowed humans to become more sedentary
B. Labor intensive
C. Stable food supply
D. Population growth
E. Use of technology to increase production and distribution of products
Political systems
The biggest problem with the success of the third agricultural revolution will be
Quality of an animals life in industrialized farms
A criticism of the third agricultural revolution would be
Central America, Northwestern South America, Western Africa, Southeast Asia
Agriculture developed in what four areas around the world
Generic engineering
Biotechnology is referred to as
Cultivate
Means to care for
Crop
Any plant cultivated by people
Vegetation planting and seed agriculture
Two types of cultivation
Carl sauer
Came up with the two types of cultivation and their origins; tried to timeline agriculture
Vegetative planting
Earliest form of plant cultivation; reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants such as cutting stems and dividing roots
Seed agriculture
Reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization; practiced by most farmers today
Southeast Asia
Origin of vegetative planting
W India, n China, Ethiopia
Origins of seed agriculture
Purpose of farming, percentage of farmers in the labor force,use of machinery, farm size, relationship of farming to other business
Five principal features that distinguish commercial agriculture
US
Largest producer of grain is
Truck
Means barter or exchange
Truck farms
Fruits & veggies sold to consumers or processors
Monsanto
Largest GMO seed producers in world
Bedouin
Farmers from Egypt
Tuareg
Farmers of Mali
Break of bulk point
A location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another
Rachel carson
American conservationist, whose 1962 book "silent spring " galvanized the modern environmental movement that gained significant traction in 1970s