39 terms

Clark AP Psych Chapter 1

Myers Chapter 1
STUDY
PLAY
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct, to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more subjects in hopes of revealing universal principles
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
stratified random sample
a sample from selected subgroups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the research
correlation coefficient
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other; ranges from -1 to +1
scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). (Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram.)
positive correlation
A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in the same direction.
negative correlation
the relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other variable decreases
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
experiment
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
placebo
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
The experimental factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
descriptive research
has the purpose of observing and recording behavior; case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observations
correlational research
the study of the natural relationship between two variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other; allowing us to predict the value of one variable from the other
mode
the most frequently occurring score in a distribution
mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
standard deviation
a measure of variability that describes an average distance of every score from the mean
statistical significance
a calculation central to inferential statistics that describes the likelihood that the results of a study happened by chance
normal curve
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes; most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
z-score
standard score indicating the number of standard deviations above or below the mean
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next