98 terms

BIOL 1108 Final Exam


Terms in this set (...)

rapid cell division the zygote undergoes after a sperm fertilizes an egg
~Cleavage leads to formation of a blastula
~a multicellular stage in which cells form a hollow ball
~The blastula undergoes gastrulation, forming a gastrula with different layers of embryonic tissues
~During gastrulation, layers of embryonic tissues that will develop into adult body parts are produced
~Many animals have at least one larval stage
~A larva is sexually immature and morphologically distinct from the adult; it eventually undergoes metamorphosis
~Metamorphosis is a developmental transformation that turns the animal into a juvenile, which resembles an adult but is not yet sexually mature
~the development of a head
~Bilaterally symmetrical animals have this
~have ectoderm and endoderm
~retain the open digestive cavity characteristic
~have an intervening mesoderm layer; these include all bilaterians
~triploblastic animals develop visceral organs such as stomachs and intestines
~Blue represents tissue derived from ectoderm, red from mesoderm, and yellow from endoderm.
~A true body cavity is called a coelom and is derived from mesoderm
~Coelomates are animals that possess a true coelom
~Coelom formation begins in the gastrula stage
~Based on early development, many animals can be categorized as having protostome development or deuterostome development
protostome=mouth first
~protostome development begins with spiral, determinate cleavage.
~the coelom forms from splits in the mesoderm
~the mouth forms from the blastopore
~Based on early development, many animals can be categorized as having protostome development or deuterostome development
~dueterostome=mouth second
~Deuterostome development is characterized by radial, indeterminate cleavage
~the coelom forms from mesodermal outpocketings of the archenteron.
~the mouth forms from a secondary opening
opening of the central cavity of an embryo in the early stage of development.
Suspension feeders
~capture food particles suspended in the water
~ex. sea squirts (marine)
~Planarians are hermaphrodites and can reproduce sexually, or asexually through fission
~Earthworms are hermaphrodites but cross-fertilize
gastrovascular cavity
primary organ for digestion and circulation in cnidaria and platyhelmenthis
~C in the picture
~part of arthropod body plan
~made of protein and chitin
~Arthropods must molt exoskeleton to grow
~The twisting of the visceral mass during embryonic development results in a coiled digestive tract in which the anus is near the anterior end of the animal
~causes the animal's anus and mantle to end up above its head(Gastropods)
~a chitinous bristle or seta found on an insect, arthropod or annelid worms such as the earthworm, although the term is also frequently used to describe similar structures in other invertebrates.
~tough coat that covers Ecdysozoans
~shed or molted through a process called ecdysis
~Nematods bodies are covered by this tough cuticle which it must shed to grow
~Cuticle for Arthropods is the exoskeleton
~Crustaceans have a cuticle that is hardened into a shell.
~Some cuticles in arthropods have pores that allow gas exchange
~Cuticle is shed through a process called ecdysis ~As larva grows during metamorphosis is also molts
~A fluid equivalent to blood in most invertebrates, occupying the hemocoel.

~It is composed of a fluid plasma in which hemolymph cells called hemocytes are suspended.
~during metamorphosis hemolymph is pumped into veins of the wings and then withdrawn, leaving the hardened veins as struts supporting the wings. The insect will fly off and reproduce, deriving much of its nourishment from the food reserves stored by the feeding larva.
~in insects the heart drives hemolymph through an open circulatory system
~Clawlike feeding appendages
~serve as pincers or fangs in Arthropods
~Modern cheliceriforms include arachnids, which include spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites
~have an abdomen and a cephalothorax, which has six pairs of appendages
~thrive on land
~Each of the second pair of appendages attached to the cephalothorax of most arachnids
~Pincers in scorpions, sensory organs in spiders, locomotory organs in horseshoe crabs.~
book lungs
~stacked platelike structures contained in an internal chamber
~Gas exchange in spiders occurs in respiratory organs called book lungs
~in mollusks it is a fold of tissue that drapes over the visceral mass and secretes a shell.
~houses gills, anus, and excretory pores.
~Many molluscs also have a water-filled mantle cavity
~In cephalopods covers the visceral mass, but the shell is reduced and internal or missing altogether.
~molluscs have a muscular foot used for movement
~Gastropods move very slowly by the contraction of their foot
~Cephalopods-jaws surrounded by tentacles of their modified foot
~Echinoderms-Each tube foot consists of a bulb-like ampulla and a podium
Open circulatory system
~The open circulatory system is common to molluscs and arthropods. Open circulatory systems (evolved in crustaceans, insects, mollusks and other invertebrates) pump blood into a hemocoel with the blood diffusing back to the circulatory system between cells. Blood is pumped by a heart into the body cavities, where tissues are surrounded by the blood.
Closed circulatory system
~Vertebrates, and a few invertebrates, have a closed circulatory system. Closed circulatory systems have the blood closed at all times within vessels of different size and wall thickness. In this type of system, blood is pumped by a heart through vessels, and does not normally fill body cavities.
No circulatory system
Incomplete/complete metamorphosis
~Incomplete metamorphosis- young (nymphs) resemble small adults and go through a series of molts until they reach full size
~Complete metamorphosis- larval stages (i.e., maggot, grub, or caterpillar) that looks entirely different from the adult stage
Lateral line system
~a system of tactile sense organs, unique to aquatic vertebrates
~ serves to detect movements and pressure changes in the surrounding water. It is made up of a series of mechanoreceptors called neuromasts (lateral line organs) arranged in an interconnected network along the head and body. This network is typically arranged in rows; however, neuromasts may also be organized singly. At its simplest, rows of neuromasts appear on the surface of the skin; however, for most fishes, they lie embedded in the floor of mucus-filled structures called lateral line canals. These canals are placed just underneath the skin, and only the receptor portion of each neuromast extends into the canal. In amphibians the lateral line system occurs only in larval forms and in adult forms that are completely aquatic.
~eggs hatch outside the mother's body
~release their eggs after encasing them in protective coats.
~the embryo develops within the uterus and is nourished by the egg yolk
~retain fertilized eggs in the oviduct. Young hatch within the uterus and are then born
~the embryo develops within the uterus and is nourished through a yolk sac placenta from the mother's blood
~Young develop within the uterus and obtain nourishment prior to birth by receiving nutrients from a placenta.
~The reproductive tract, excretory system, and digestive tract empty into a common cloaca
~can be found in newts and frogs
Most fishes breathe by drawing water over gills protected by an operculum
*swim bladder
Fishes control their buoyancy a swim bladder
Have four limbs and feet with digits
Ears for detecting airborne sounds
Multiple vertebrae in neck
Lung to gills adapt and evolve into ears
~tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg
~The major derived character is the amniotic egg, which contains membranes that protect the embryo
~Amniotes have other terrestrial adaptations, such as relatively impermeable skin and the ability to use the rib cage to ventilate the lungs
~Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk
~Rib cage ventilation is more efficient than throat-based ventilation. It also allows amniotes to abandon breathing through their skin and develop less permeable skin, thereby conserving water.
Living members are the reptiles, including birds, and mammals.
~capable of keeping the body warm through metabolism
~using their own metabolism to maintain a high, constant body temperature
Metabolism: the sum of all chemical reactions in the body
Needs constant energy input (food)

~ex. birds
Absorb external heat as the main source of body heat
Can survive on 10% energy requirement of endotherms

~ex- most reptiles
~bipedal carnivores
~ex. birds, dinosaurs
How does an animal differ from plants and fungi in terms of nutritional mode and cell structure.
Nutritional Mode:Animals derive their nutrition by ingesting it.
Animals are heterotrophs
Plants = autotrophs
Fungi = heterotrophs; feed by absorption
Animals = heterotrophs; ingest their food
Cell Structure:
Animals are multicellular eukaryotes
Cells lack cell walls
Bodies held together by structural proteins such as collagen
Nervous tissue are unique to animals
*The difference between radial and bilateral symmetry
~Radial-does not have a left side and a right side. Any imaginary slice through the central axis divides the animal into mirror images. ex. seas anemone
~Bilateral-has a left side and a right side. Only one imaginary cut divides the animal into mirror-image halves. ex-lobster
*Bilaterally symmetrical animals have:
A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side
A right and left side
Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends
Cephalization, the development of a head
*Symmetry of an animal fits its lifestyle.
Radial- sessile or planktonic; equipped to experience the environment from all angles.
Bilateral- active; complex movements and sense environment from head first
*Identify the dorsal, ventral, anterior and posterior part of an animal (perhaps a fish)
*The three major germ layers of animals (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm) and what they eventually form in an animal
The germ layer covering the embryo's surface
The innermost germ layer and lines the developing digestive tube
Muscle tissue and internal organs
*The relationship between germ layers and acoelomates, pseudocoelomates, and coelomates.
Triploblastic animals that lack a body cavity
Triploblastic animals that possess a false body cavity derived from mesoderm and endoderm
Body cavity derived from mesoderm
The function of a body cavity in an organism
~protect delicate organs from accidental shocks and cushion them from the thumps and bumps that occur when we move
~permit significant changes in the size and shape of internal organs
The difference between determinate and indeterminate cleavage.
Fate of cell determined early
Cells can develop into anything
****Be able to identify the phylum or class an organism belongs to based upon a general description. Ex. Flattened body, acoelomate, lack a circulatory system, contain protonephridia (or flame bulbs) = Platyhelminthes (Think matching)
~Cnidarians include corals, jellies, and hydras. These animals are diploblastic, radially symmetric, and have a single opening that serves as both mouth and anus (incomplete digestive system).include sessile and motile forms, including hydras, coral, and jellies. Most exhibit simple, diploblastic, radial body plans.
Have a gastrovascular cavity.The body wall of a cnidarian has two layers of cells: an outer layer (epidermis) and an inner layer (gastrodermis). Digestion begins in the gastrovascular cavity. Flagella on gastrodermal cells keep the contents of the cavity agitated and help distribute nutrients. Between the two tissue layers is the mesoglea. have Cnidocytes and Nematocysts

~Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) (including tapeworms, planarians, and flukes) have bilateral symmetry and central nervous system. But they have no body cavity (acoelomate).Phylum Platyhelminthes
live in marine, freshwater, and damp terrestrial habitats Triploblastic; acoelomates. Flattened dorsoventrally and have a gastrovascular cavity
Gas exchange takes place across the surface, and protonephridia regulate the osmotic balance

~Mollusca-non-segmented.All molluscs have a similar body plan with three main parts:
Muscular foot is used for movement.
Visceral mass contains most of the internal organs.
Mantle is a fold of tissue that drapes over the visceral mass and secretes a shell.
Mantle cavity houses gills, anus, and excretory pores.
Radula used to scrape up food.

~Annelids are segmented worms distinguished from other worms by body segmentation. Earthworms are familiar annelids but also include marine and freshwater species.
~Echinoderms- such as sand dollars, sea stars, and sea urchins. Aquatic animals that are bilaterally symmetrical as larvae but not as adults. They move and feed by using a network of internal canals to pump water to different parts of their body.
~Sponges- sedentary animals from the phyla Calcarea and Silicea (formerly Porifera), live in fresh and marine waters
Lack true tissues and organs
Know the following parts and their associated function in a sponge: spongocoel, osculum, choanocytes, amoebocytes
~Spongocoel-the internal cavity of the sponge. Water is drawn through pores into a cavity (spongocoel), and out through an opening called the osculum
~Osculum- opening in the sponge
~Choanocytes- flagellated cells. Create a current that draws water in and then out through the osculum
~amoebocytes-cells that transport nutrients to other cells of the sponge body and produce spicules.
The difference between sponges and Eumetazoans.
Sponges-no tissues
The two body forms of Cnidarians
Polyps are cylindrical forms that adhere to the substrate at the end opposite of the mouth (tentacles up) (sessile).

Medusa is a flattened, mouth-down version of the polyp (tentacles down). It moves freely in the water by drifting and contractions of its belly shaped body.(mobile)
Know the following parts and their associated function in a cnidarian: mesoglea, cnidocytes, nematocysts, tentacles
mesoglea-Between the two tissue layers epidermis and gastrodermis
cnidocytes-unique to cnidarians that function in defense and prey capture
nematocysts -can penetrate the body wall of the cnidarians prey. Other threads that can stick to or entangle prey.
tentacles- used to capture prey, and are armed with cnidocytes
The life cycle of the hydrozoan Obelia, specifically keying on the body forms and the associated mode of reproduction
1.A colony of interconnected polyps results from asexual reproduction by budding.
2.Some of the colony's polyps, equipped with tentacles, are specialized for feeding.
3.Other polyps, specialized for reproduction, lack tentacles and produce tiny medusa by asexual budding.
4.Medusae swim off, grow, and reproduce sexually.
5.The zygote develops into a solid ciliated larva called a planula.
6.The planula eventually settles and develops into a new polyp.
The polyp stage is asexual, the medusa stage is sexual. These two stages alternate, one producing the other.
The importance of coral reef ecosystems and current threats to them
Each coral generation builds on the calcium carbonate skeletal remains of earlier generations, constructing rock-like reefs.
Coral reefs provide habitat to many species but are being destroyed by human activity. Pollution and fishing are major problems.
Anatomy of a Tapeworm
*Life Cycle of the Tapeworm
Mature flukes live in the blood vessels of the human intestine
Blood flukes reproduce sexually in the human host. The fertilized eggs exit the host in feces
If the feces reach a pond or other source of water, the eggs develop into ciliated larvae. These larvae infect snails, the intermediate hosts
Asexual reproduction within a snail results in another type of motile larva, which escapes from the snail host
These larvae penetrate the skin
Schistomsomiasis symptoms include pain, anemia, and dysentery and infects 200 million people worldwide.
Know the following parts and their associated function in a mollusc:
Visceral mass-Internal organs
Mantle-Tissue forms shell
Radula-Scrapes up food
How does a bivalve acquire nutrients?
Gills for gas exchange and feeding
Ecological importance of nematodes
Decomposition and nutrient cycling
Anatomy of Arthropods
Antennae-sensory reception
Cephelothorax(head and thorax)
Swimming appendages-one pair under each segment
Walking legs
Mouth parts-feeding
*The 4 major lineages of Arthropoda and example organisms
Sea spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks, mites, and spiders
Centipedes and millipedes
Insects and relatives
Crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles, etc.
Various ways in which a spider will use silk
Drop line for rapid escape
Cover for eggs
"gift wrap" for food that males offer females
Transport by wind in a behavior known as ballooning
*Differences between millipedes and centipeds
Many legs
Each trunk segment has two pairs of legs
Feed on decaying material
One pair of legs per trunk segment
Poison claws at mouth
Importance and function of wings in insects
An animal that can fly can escape predators, find food, and disperse to new habitats much faster than organisms that can only crawl
Difference in insect wings compared to other winged organisms
Wing derived from cuticle of exoskeleton, not a modified extension of an arm
How insects affect other living things
Some insects are beneficial as pollinators, while others are harmful as carriers of diseases, or pests of crops.
Major adaptation and examples of crustaceans
Have branched appendages that are extensively specialized for feeding and locomotion
EX: Crabs
*Know the following parts and their associated function in an Echinoderm (sea star):
Tube feet-Function in locomotion feeding and gas exchange and suction
Water vascular system-A network of hydraulic canals branching into tube feet
Madreporite-Where water enters and exits
*Identify whether an organism is an invertebrate or vertebrate
Invertebrate-NO SPINE
Vertebrate-Enclosed spinal cord
Elaborate skull
Fin rays, in the aquatic forms
*Provide at least 3 examples of an organism that is an invertebrate chordate
****4 structures found in a chordate. Where are these structures are found in humans?
Dorsal hollow nerve chor
pharyngeal slits or clefts
muscular anal tail

In humans this developes into the nervous system: the brain and spinal cord
Know what Clades veretbrates belong to
Cartilaginous skull and axial rod of cartilage derived from the notochord, but lack jaws and vertebrae.
Ecological Role:
Bottom feeders (benthic)
Large fish
Defense: Excrete large amount of slime that chokes the predator, which then lets them go
Jawless vertebrates in marine and freshwater habitats
Cartilaginous segments surrounding the notochord and arching partly over the nerve cord
Ecological Role:
Feed by parasiting a fish host
Story of the sea lamprey:
Invasive to the Great Lakes
When they meet to mate (large numbers) a pesticide is sprayed on them
Males are taken out and sterilized, then put back in to cut reproduction rates
*Threats to shark populations and ways to protect them
Shark finning
Recreational fishing
Liver oil
Don't buy shark products
*Identification of fins of the fish
*BONUS:Story of the Coelacanth
Thought to be long extinct
Found on South African coast by fishermen, shown to museum curator interested in fish
Mailed a sketch and a description to a scientist
He ignored for a long time
By the time he showed up, much of the fish was decayed
Another one was not found for 14 years
*Distinguish between the three orders of ambhibians
Order Urodela
4 legs and a tail
Order Anura
Frogs & toads
4 highly modified limbs, no tail, long sticky tongue, poison
Order Apoda
No limbs = caecilians
Reproductive strategies and examples of parental care in frogs
~Prolonged breeding-Female choice
Male frogs call to females
~Explosive Breeding-Competition for females is fierce, males usually outnumber females
Male frogs wrestle each other to get to the female
No calling
Females only come to mate once or twice a year
~Parental Care-Make nests
Lay eggs in or near water
*Reasons for declines in amphibian populations
Habitat loss
Spread of the chytrid fungus pathogen
Climate change
Pollution-breath through skin but gets blocked by pollutants
*The amniotic egg
Extraembryonic membranes
Amnion-fluid fillled sac right outside of embryo that provides coushion
Choirion-permeable membrane-breathing
Yolk sac-food supply
Allantois-garbage bag
Why reptiles can survive on less food than mammals
Absorb external heat
Don't need constant energy input to keep metabolism going to keep body warm
Lepidosaurs vs. Archosaurs
Lepidosaurs-Tuataras, lizards, snakes, turtles
Archosaurs-Crocodilians, pterosaurs, dinosaurs, birds
Rats introduced by humans eat tuatara eggs, declining the population.
Live for over 100 years
Predatory adaptations of snakes
Acute chemical signals
Can feel vibrations of the ground
Heat detecting organs between eyes and nostrils of pit vipers help locate warm animals
Poisonous snakes inject their toxin through a pair of sharp, hollow or grooved teeth
Distinctiveness of turtles
Box like shell made of upper and lower shields that are fused to the vertebrae, clavicles, and ribs.
Upper and lower shell probably derived from scales
Strategies for conservation of sea turtle populations
Turtle nets
National laws
International agreements
State and local protection
Parental care in crocodilians
Guarding and defense
Carry young in mouth
*Derived characteristics in birds (flight)
Wings with keratin feathers
Lack of a urinary bladder
Females with one ovary
Small gonads
Loss of teeth
Spongy, porous, hollow bones
Name of the organism thought to be the first bird
Derived characteristics of mammals
Milk producing mammary glands
Larger brain than other vertebrates of the same size
Differentiated teeth
***3 major groups of mammals and their functional differences
egg laying
Ex. Platypus and echidna

Internal development of young
Short gestation, birth of underdeveloped young
Complete development in marsupial (pouch)
Ex. Kangaroos, koalas, opossums

longer gestation
Complete embryonic development in uterus
Joined to mother by placenta
Ex. Horses, primates

(name all 3, describe what makes them different, give an example of each)
Derived characteristics of primates
Hands and feet adapted for grasping
Large brain
Short jaws
Forward looking eyes set close together on face
Provides depth perception
Complex social behavior and parental care
Domains of Life
Eukaya, Archea, Bacteria
Kingdoms of Life
Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae

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