electrolytes & fluids
Terms in this set (56)
inorganic substances that dissociate in body fluids to form ions called electrolytes.
the ECF and ICF
account for 40-50% of the mass of the body. proteins, lipids, minerals, carbs.
exists when the amount of water you gain each day is equal to the amount you lose.
a rapid water movement between the ECF and ICF in response to an osmotic gradient. occur rapidly if osmotic conc of ECF changes, and reach equilibrium within mins to hours.
balance between ion absorption, which occurs across the lining of the small intestine and colon. and ion excretion, which occurs primarily at the kidneys. sweat glands are source of water/mineral loss.
essential for normal membrane function. primarily in body fluids. water is regulated simultaneously with its dependent mineral.
-excretion: urine, sweat, feces
essential for normal membrane function. primarily in cytoplasm.
major anion of body fluids, forms HCl. primarily in body fluids.
-excretion: urine, sweat
-the major anion of the body
essential for muscle and neuron function, and normal bone structure. primarily in skeleton.
-excretion: urine, feces
required for bone mineralization, formation of high energy compounds, and activation of enzymes. primarily in skeleton.
-excretion: urine, feces
cofactor of enzymes.
component of hemoglobin and myoglobin.
-excretion: urine (traces)
cofactor of enzyme systems
-excretion: urine, hair
cofactor for hemoglobin synthesis
-excretion: urine, feces
cofactor for amino acid and catabolism
-excretion: feces, urine
exists when sodium gains equal sodium losses. changes the ECF volume but keeps Na conc relatively stable.
acid base balance
production of H ions is precisely offset by their loss, and when pH of body fluids remains within normal limits.
a substance that tends to oppose changes in the pH of a solution by removing or replacing H ions in body fluids. maintain blood pH within normal limits.
-buffer system consists of a weak acid and dissociated ions
-temporary compensation of acid base disturbances is controlled by
an ionic compound of a cation other than a hydrogen ion and anion other than a hydroxide ion.
when pH plasma falls below 7.35, academia exists. physiological state that results
when pH plasma rises above 7.45, alkalemia exists. physiological state that results
kidneys secrete or generate either H or HCO
respiratory rate increases or decreases
phosphate buffer system
has important role in buffering pH of ICF and urine, where phosphate concs are high.
protein buffer systems
help regulate pH in the ECF and ICF. buffer systems interact extensively with the other 2 buffer systems.
-hemoglobin buffer system (RBCs only)
-amino acid buffers (all proteins)
-plasma protein buffers
carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system
the most important in the ECF. when there are excess H+ from metabolic activity, carbonic acid is generated that dissociates into water and co2.
hemoglobin buffer system
only intracellular buffer system that can have an immediate effect on the pH of body fluids.
develops when acids release large numbers of H and the pH decreases. the excess H must be 1. permanently tied up through formation of water. or 2. removed from body fluids through secretion at the kidneys
develops when rate of co2 removal by lungs is less than rate of co2 generation
develops when large numbers of H are removed from body fluids raising pH. when this occurs
1. rate of H secretion at kidneys declines
2. tubule cells do not reclaim the bicarbonates in tubular fluid
3. collecting system transports HCO3 into tubular fluid while releasing a strong acid into the ECF
develops if the rate of co2 elimination by the lungs exceeds the rate of co2 generation.
promote release of ANP and result in reduction of BP
rising BP and volume will
urinary and respiratory systems
2 body systems can rid the body of a substantial amount of excess acids or compensate for excess alkalinity. they are
protein and enzyme structural changes
changes from the normal pH between 7.35-7.45 result in
a large pool of ions available for the carbonic acid buffer system is the __ reserve
the primary mineral storage spot in the body is the
production of H ions during normal metabolic processes
the primary challenge to pH homeostasis is
the normal pH of urine generally averages around
ingestion and metabolism
water enters the body through
sodium and potassium
the ions most vital for membrane function are
severe acidosis symptoms
coma, peripheral vasodilation, weak and irregular cardiac contractions, deterioration of CNS function
patient has metabolic acidosis
patient has been breathing rapidly, plasma pH is 7.25, level of co2 in blood is below normal, what is most likely true
ADH is secreted to restrict water loss
when you consume large amounts of salt w/o water
increasing the co2 decreases the pH of the blood by forming carbonic acid
what effect does co2 have on the pH of blood?
buffer systems provide temporary storage for
passive down osmotic gradients
movement of water is
remains at equilibrium
the osmotic balance of the ECF and the ICF
primary location of ion secretion
changes in length and rate of breathing
respiratory acid base disorders are corrected by
water content of average adult varies between ___ %
rises and pH decreases
when co2 levels rise, bicarbonate
ions are absorbed and enter the body via the
when acids are added to buffer systems, H+ from the acid reacts with the
the internal and external environments of cells differ bc of the presence of the
the most important factor affecting pH of body tissues