How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

79 terms

Chapter 1--Basic Concepts

STUDY
PLAY
cartography
the science of making maps
contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
cultural landscape
a landscape that has been changed by human beings and that reflects their culture
density
the frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
diffusion
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
distance decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
distribution
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
environmental determinism
A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
expansion diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
formal region
(or uniform or homogeneous region) an area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
functional region
(or nodal region) An area organized around a node or focal point
GIS
Geographic Information System--A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
GPS
Global Positioning System--A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and recievers.
hierarchical diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
hearth
the region from which innovative ideas originate
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
latitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
longitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°).
Mercator projection
A map which accurately shows directions and shapes but distorts distance and size. Often used for navigation because its lines of latitude and longitude are straight and equidistant
mental map
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
polder
Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area.
Prime Meridian
The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
projection
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
relocation diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
remote sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
scale
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
site
The physical character of a place
situation
the location of a place relative to other places
space-time compression
the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
toponym
the name by which a geographical place is known
transnational corporation
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
uneven development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
vernacular region
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
cultural ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
culture
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.
abiotic
Composed of nonliving or inorganic matter
acculturation
The exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact; the original cultural patterns of either are both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct
assimilation
Process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture
atmosphere
A thin layer of gases surrounding Earth
behavioral geography
is a branch of human geography that attempts to understand the psychological basis for individual human actions
biosphere
All living organisms on Earth, including plants and animals, as well as microorganisms
biotic
Living organisms
citizen science
is scientific research that is conducted by amateur scientists
climate
The long-term average weather condition at a particular location.
concentration
The spread of something over a given area.
connection
Relationships among people and objects across a barrier of space.
conservation
The sustainable use and management of a natural resource, through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced.
ecology
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
ecosystem
A group of living organisms and the abiotic spheres with which they interact
GIScience
Geographic Information Science--The development and analysis of data about Earth acquired through satellite and other electronic information technologies
geotagging
Identification and storage of a piece of information by its precise latitude and longitude coordinates
globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Greenwich Mean Time
The time in that time zone ecompassing the Prime Meridian, or 0 degrees longitude
humanistic geography
The study of different ways that individuals form ideas about place and give those places symbolic meanings
hydrosphere
All of the water on and near Earth's surface
lithosphere
Earth's crust and a portion of upper mantle directly below the crust
location
The position of anything on Earth's surface.
map
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it.
map scale
The relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
mashup
a map that overlays data from one source on top of a map provided by a mapping service
meridian
An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.
nonrenewable resource
Something produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humans
parallel
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
PGIS
Participatory GIS--Community-based mapping, representing local knowledge and information
pattern
the geometric or regular arrangement of something in a particular area
place
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
poststructuralist geography
the study of space as the product of ideologies or value systems of ruling elites
preservation
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible.
region
An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
renewable resource
Something produced in nature more rapidly than it is consumed by humans
resource
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
space
The physical gap or interval between two objects.
VGI
Volunteered geographic information--creation and dissemination of geographic data contributed voluntarily and for free by individuals
spacial association
The relationship between features . It refers to the degree to which spacial arrangement of features is similar or different.
sustainability
The use of Earth's renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future.
syncretism
the combining of elements of two groups into a new cultural feature
network
A chain of communication that connects places.