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APUSH Chapter 13

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Seneca Falls
two day meeting in July 1848. occurred at Seneca Falls, a place that had been ravaged by the war, was struggling to re cooperate, and was a hotbed for many reform movements. advertised as "convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman." almost 300 people, both men & women, attended. focused on the Declaration of Sentiments. the first successful women's rights convention. jump-started the discussion of and activism for women's rights, which went hand-in-hand with the abolitionist movement
Declaration of Sentiments
A petition for women's rights modeled on the Declaration of Independence. It detailed, in a series of resolutions, the oppressions men had imposed on women. They had deprived women of legal rights, of the right to own their own property, of custody of their children in cases of divorce, of the right to higher education, of full participation in religious worship and activity, and of the right to vote
Oberlin College
One of the conditions of the Declaration of Sentiments was for women's right to a higher education. At the time this was one of the two schools that accepted women along with Mt. Holyoke Female Seminary.
Mt. Holyoke Female Seminary
first women's college. began in 1837. was revolutionary because it provided educational opportunity for women that was equal to men. over time it grew into a well-known and successful college
Lucretia Mott
"Why Lizzie, three will make us ridiculous!" This Quaker had exclaimed when Elizabeth Cady Stanton proposed the voting rights measure. The newspaper is reporting on the convention thought the demand for the vote was ridiculously unfeminine. But the group that assembled in Seneca Falls was undeterred. Buoyed by the success of this first women's rights convention, they probably planned another one three weeks later in New York's largest upstate city, Rochester, to reach new supporters and to develop strategies to implement their resolutions. The idea for the women's rights convention emerge during a meeting in early July, 1848, between her, a Philadelphia Quaker and the nations best-known woman reformer, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton the Seneca Falls. Reflecting her many concerns, she had just finished a tour of the new penitentiary at Auburn and a nearby Indian reservation and was visiting her sister in Waterloo. Stanton called for teetering knew her acquaintance with this woman, and it was in this context of friendship and showed concern for reform but the two begin planning the convention that was held two weeks later. As Stanton and this woman spoke of the changes that would be necessary to allow women to care for their families but have energy left over to reform "the wrongs and society," the idea of a women's rights convention was born.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Wesleyans
Proposed voting rights measure in the Declaration of Sentiments. The idea for the Women's Rights convention emerged during a meeting in early July, 1848 between her and Lucretia Mott. Wife of a well-known anti slavery orator and niece of a leading reform philanthropist. She and her family had moved from Boston to Seneca Falls. Stanton, soon to form a working partnership with Susan B. Anthony, devoted the rest of her life to women's rights
Temperance Reformation
one aspect of social reform. the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance was the largest reform organization of the time; it had over 200,000 members.
the focus of the temperance movement was to force men who were spending too much money on alcohol to 'fess up, take charge of their actions, and make efforts to live a more moral life. women played an important role in pursuing temperance. drunkenness was primarily a man's affliction. drinking became something that was seen as immoral and irresponsible. it was banned at work. many campaigns took place. affected by the Panic of 1837. by 1840, alcohol consumption in the States had more than halved
Susan B. Anthony
The women's rights movement that took shape from this convention proved exceptionally long lasting. Stanton, soon to form a working partnership with this former temperance worker. She devoted the rest of her life to women's rights. a strong and organized leader in the women's rights movement. Organized Seneca Falls in 1848
"Walking cities"
the pre-industrial cities of eighteenth-century America were small and compact. This name was because people mostly got around on foot, an example of this is Philadelphia. This changed with the market revolution, which dramatically increased the size of America's cities. Another word for it is an instant city.
Market revolution
Affected all aspects of American life. It's impact was most noticeable in the cities. It drastically increased the size of America's cities, with the great seaports leading the way. It oriented the attention of each of the major seaports away from the oceans and toward trade with the nation's interior. Another result was the appearance of "instant" cities at critical points on the new transportation network. The benefits of the revolution were unequally distributed: by the 1840s the top 1 percent of the population owned about 40 percent of the nation's wealth, while one-third of the population owned virtually nothing. A result was the political expression, in a democratic society, of the conflict of interests between owners and workers
Streetcar suburbs
There was the rich, The middle class, and the poor.
The rich people clustered in neighborhoods that had the new amenities. The middle class lived in these
And the poor got very little it was what they called bad neighborhoods or slums. By the 1850s the middle class began to the skate city is completely by moving to these new places, named for the new mode of Irvine transportation that connected these nearby areas to the city itself. The worst New York slalom in the 19th century was Five Points
Five Points
the worst New York slum in the nineteenth century. Immigrants, free black people, and criminals were crammed into rundown buildings known as "rookeries". Notorious gangs of thieves and pickpockets, murder or, starvation were fairly common in this district. With the influx of immigrants to the U.S., Americans viewed slums as places that foreigners and other strange people resided. This residential pattern embodied larger issues of class and citizenship.
"Little Germanies"
ethnic neighborhoods. made in urban areas by German immigrants. formed church societies, mutual benefit societies, fire companies, and militia companies. formed leisure organizations such as singing groups, debate/political clubs, concert halls, theatres, gymnastics associations, and beer gardens. skilled workers. generally not as poor as the Irish immigrants
published newspaper in German
Social Reform
The size, diversity, and changing working conditions in American cities bred a new urban popular culture with New York, the largest city, leading the way. The passion for reform that had become such an important part of the new middle-class thinking was focused on the problems of the nation's cities. Middle-class people tried to deal with social changes in their communities by joining organizations devoted to reforms such as temperance, education, prisons and asylums, women's rights, abolitionism, and the spread of evangelical religion. Evangelical religion was fundamental to social reform. A second characteristic of the reform movement was a belief in the basic goodness of human nature. A third characteristic of the reform movement was their moral dogmatism. Some aspects of the social reform movements were harmful. Regional and national reform organizations quickly grew from local projects to deal with social problems such as drinking, prostitution,mental illness, and crime. Women became deeply involved in reform movements through their churches. Reformers believed not only that children could be modeled but that adults could change.
Evangelical religion
fundamental to social reform. Men and women who had been converted to the enthusiastic new faith assumed personal responsibility for making changes in their own lives. Personal reform led to social reform. They believed that if converts to evangelicalism could put their efforts in moral reform than the whole world could be reformed.
"Perfectionism"
preached first by Charles G. Finney, a leading revivalist of the era. claimed that "it was possible for all Christians to personally understand and live by God's will and thereby become 'as perfect as God.'" Finney predicted the entire Church would undergo moral reform if enough converts strove for perfectionism. people saw this as hopeful
Prison reform
Other reformers were active in related causes such as these and the establishment of orphanages, homes of refuge, and hospitals. Model penitentiaries were built in Auburn and Ossining (known as "Sing Sing"), New York, and in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Characterized by strict order and discipline, These were supposed to reform rather than simply incarcerate there inmates, but there regimen use of silence and isolation cause despair more often then rehabilitation. All reformers believed that the condition of the unfortunate - the poor, the insane, the criminal -- would improve in a wholesome environment. That's insane asylum's were built in rural areas, away from the noise and stress of the cities, and orphanages had strict rules that were meant to encourage discipline and self reliance. Prison reform carried to send it to the extreme. On the theory that bad social influences were largely responsible for crime, some "Model" prisons completely isolated prisoners from one another making them eat, sleep, work, and do required Bible reading in their own cells.
Failure of these prisons to achieve dramatic changes for the better in their inmates (a number of isolated prisoners went mad, and some committed suicide) or to reduce crime was one of the first indications that reform was not a simple task.
Temperance movement
Targeted immigrants for their free drinking habits. The largest reform organization of the period, the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance, founded in 1826, boasted more than 200,000 members by the mid-1830s. Dominated by evangelicals, local chapters used revival methods to encourage young men to stand up, confess their bad habits, and "take the pledge" to not drink. Excessive drinking was a national problem, and it appears to have been mostly a masculine one, for respectable women did not drink in public. Traditionally, drinking had been a basic part of men's working lives. There were many reasons to support temperance: heavy-drinking men hurt their families economically by spending their wages on drink, women had no recourse; Excessive drinking also led to violence and crime, both within the family and in the larger society. The new middle-class, preoccupied with respectability and morality, found the old easygoing drinking ways unacceptable. As work patterns changed, employers banned alcohol at work and increasingly considered drinking men not only unreliable but immoral. It became a social and political issue
Whigs favored it and the Democrats opposed it
German and Irish immigrants were hostile towards to temperance reform. The Panic of 1837 affected the temperance movement. Workers formed associations known as Washington Temperance Societies and spread the word that temperance was the workingman's best chance to survive economically and to maintain his independence. The wives, gathered together in Martha Washington Societies, were frequently even more committed to temperance than their husbands
Lyman Beecher
Congregationalist minister. joined other ministers to form the General Union for Promoting the Observance of the Christian Sabbath in 1828. their goal was to stop businesses operating on Sundays. this came as part of the response to social problems like "drinking, prostitution, mental illness, and crime." they lobbied, had petition drives, fund-rose, and had special publications
Educational reform
Women became deeply involved in reform movements through their churches. It was they who did most of the fundraising for the whole missionary societies that we are beginning to send the Evangelical message worldwide -- at first by ministers alone, later bye married couples. Nearly every church had a maternal association, where mothers gather to discuss ways to raise their children as true Christians. These associations reflected a new and more positive definition of childhood. The Puritans had believed that children are born sinful and that their wills had to be broken before they could become godly. Early schools reflected these beliefs: teaching was by rote, and punishment was harsh and physical. Educational reformers, however, tended to believe that children are born in the sun and needed gentle nurturing and encouragement if they were to flourish. At home, mothers weekend plays a central role in child rearing. Outside the home women help spread the new public education paint pioneered by Horace Mann, secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education. Horace Mann insisted that to learn well, children needed schools with the pleasant and friendly atmosphere. One important way to achieve that atmosphere, Mann recommended, was to group children by ages rather than combining everyone in the traditional ungraded classroom and to pay special attention to the needs of the youngest people's. The spread of public education created the first real career opportunity for women.
The great champion of teacher training for women was Catharine Beecher, daughter of Lyman, who clearly saw her efforts as part of the larger work of establishing "the moral government of God." Arguing that women's moral and nurturing nature ideally suited them to be teachers, beat your campaign tirelessly on their behalf.
Horace Mann
pioneered new public education in the 1830s that included uniformity in curriculum and teacher training, and the grading of classes by ability. Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education. His measures soon caught on in other states. Insisted that to learn well, children needed schools with a pleasant and friendly atmosphere. His way of achieving this was by separating children into groups by age.
Compulsory education
began by the Puritans, who believed that children were sinful and had to be broken before they could become godly. educational reformers believed that children were born innocent & would flourish from nourishment and education. compulsory education was first pursued by Massachusetts in 1827, when they ruled that public schools could be supported by public taxes. schooling for white children became common, and by the 1830s compulsory education had spread throughout the states
Catherine Beecher
The great champion of teacher training for women.
Daughter of Lyman, who clearly saw her efforts as part of the larger work of establishing "the moral government of God." She argued that women's moral and nurturing nature ideally suited them to be teachers, she campaign tirelessly on their behalf. She said since "the mind is to be guided chiefly by means of the affections, is not woman best fit it to accomplish these important objects?" By 1850 women were dominant in primary school teaching, which should come to be regarded as an acceptable occupation for educated young women during the few years between their own schooling and marriage.
"Schoolmarms"
young, educated women who taught in the few years between their schooling and marriage. Enthusiastically volunteered to teach on the distant western frontiers of Wisconsin and Iowa.
American Society for the Promotion of Temperance
largest reform organization of this era. aimed at stopping drunkenness. founded in 126. by 1830s it had more than 200,000 members. primarily consisted of evangelicals. used revival methods like "lurid temperance tracts detailing the evils of alcohol, large prayer and song meetings, and heavy group pressure"
Patent medicines
Many women drank alcohol-based patent medicines.
Lydia Pinkham's Vegetable Compound, marketed for "female complaints" was 19 percent alcohol
Panic of 1837
prolonged depression from 1837-1843 that prompted artisans and skilled workers to cut down substantially on drinking. Affected the temperance movement and encouraged workers to cut down on drinking.
Washington Temperance Societies
formed by artisans and skilled workers who had given up alcohol as a result of the Panic of 1837. they believed that temperance was the best chance of the working man to remain financially stable and to maintain independence. their wives formed the Martha Washington Societies, which followed the same logic but more strictly
"Social Evil"
Alcohol is not the only one of these that reform groups attacked. Another was prostitution, which was common in the nations port cities. The customary approach of evangelical reforms was to "rescue" prostitutes, offering them the salvation of religion, prayer, and temporary shelter. The success rate was not very high. As an alternative to prostitution, reformer usually offer domestic work, a low-paying and restrictive occupation that many women scorned. Nevertheless, campaigns against prostitution, generally organized by women, continued throughout the 19th century.
Female Moral Reform Society
One of the earliest and most effective anti-prostitution groups. Founded by evangelical women in New York in `834 (the first president was Lydia Finney), it boasted 555 affiliates throughout the country by 1840. It was surprising that so many respectable women were willing to acknowledge the existence of something so disreputable as prostitution. Even more surprising was the speed with which the societies realized that prostitution was not so much a moral as an economic issue. The societies rapidly moved to organize charity and work for poor women and orphans. They also took direct action against the patrons of prostitutes by printing their names in local papers, and they successfully lobbied the New York state legislature for criminal penalties against the male clients as well as the women themselves
Dorothea Dix
evangelist who "spearheaded" the asylum movement in 1843. she conducted a multiple-year-long study into the conditions of the conditions faced by mentally ill women at the time. she published these results, laying bare the atrocities that occurred to the mentally unstable. her work led to the establishment of a Massachusetts state asylum, and other states followed suit. she traveled throughout 1843-1854 to promote her studies and findings nationally
"the burned-over district"
Amid all the political activism and reform server of the 1830s, a few people choose escape into Utopian communities and new religions. The upstate New York area along the Erie Canal was the seedbed for this movement, just as it was for evangelical revivals and reform movements like the Seneca Falls convention. The area was so notable for its your form enthusiasm is that it is been termed this. A reference to the waves of reform swept through like forest fires.
Utopian Movements
political activism and reform fervor of the 1830s led a few people to escape into utopian communities and new religions. The upstate new York area along the Erie Canal was the seedbed for this movement, just as it was for the evangelical revivals and reform movements like the Seneca Falls convention. These included the Millerites, the Shakers, the Oneida Community, and New Harmony.
Millerites
Named for their founder, William Miller. Believed that the second coming of Christ would occur on October 22, 1843. In anticipation, members of the church sold their belongings and bought white robes for their ascension to heaven. When the Day of Judgement did not take place as expected, most of Miller's followers drifted away But a small group persisted
Revising their expectations, they formed a core
Shakers
Founded by "Mother " Ann lee in 1774. They were the oldest Utopian group. In offshoot of the Quakers, they is spouse a radical social philosophy that called for the abolishment of the traditional family in favor of a family of brothers and sisters joined an equal fellowship.
Despite its insistence on celibacy, this movement grew between 1820 and 1830, eventually reaching 20 settlements in eight states with the total membership of 6000. They're simple and highly structured lifestyle, their isolation from the changing world, and their belief inequality true new followers, especially among women.
Oneida Community
became notorious for its sexual freedom. founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848. viewed itself as one family like the Shaker community. members practiced "complex marriage", a system of highly regulated group sexual activity. Only spiritually advanced males could father children which would be raised communally.
These practices gave the sect a notorious reputation as a den of "free love" and socialism, preventing Noyes from increasing its membership beyond 200
New Harmony
one of the Utopian societies. founded by Robert Owen, a Scottish industrialist, in 1825. in Indiana. intended it to be a manufacturing community without any poverty or unemployment. it lasted only 3 years
Charles Fourier
Faring little better were the "phalanxes," huge communal buildings structures on the socialist theories of this French thinker. Based on his belief that there was a rational way to divide work, he suggested, for example, that children would make the best garbage collectors because they didn't mind dirt
Joseph Smith
patriarch of Mormonism. founded the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints in 1830. claimed to have received a vision that gave him the Book of Mormon.
founded the Church in New York but, due to harassment, moved to Ohio and Missouri. his new doctrine on polygamy in 1844 caused dissent within the community. Smith and his brothers were arrested peacefully but killed by a mob that their jailers failed to protect them from
Mormonism
began by Joseph Smith. emerged the same time as Utopianism. was identified by "extraordinary comunitarianism." the Mormon community was successful due to this hardworking, community mindset
they were resented for their economic successive and exclusivity. harassed in New York and moved west to Ohio and then Missouri. settled in Illinois in 1839 with a model community, achieving almost total isolation from non-Mormons. they received much dissent in 1844 as a result of Smith's doctrine of polygamy. Smith and his brother were arrested, then killed by a mob. the remaining Mormon community moved to Utah in 1846 under the leadership of Brigham Young
American Colonization Society
The first attempt to "solve" the problem of slavery was the plan for gradual emancipation of slaves (with compensation to their owners) and they resettlement in Africa. This plan was the work of this group which was formed in 1817 by Northern religious reformers (Quakers prominent among them) and a number of southern slave owners, most from the upper south and the border states (Kentuckian Henry Clay was a supporter). Northerners were especially eager to send the Norths 250,000 free black people back to Africa, describing them, in the words of the societies 1829 report, as "notoriously ignorant, degraded and miserable, mentally diseased, [and] broken-spirited," the characterization that completely ignore the legal and social discrimination they faced. Some northern members of the society also supported laws disenfranchising and restricting the rights of free African-Americans. This group was your markedly ineffective; by 1830, it had managed to send only 1400 black people to a colony in Liberia, West Africa. Critics pointed out that more slaves were born in a week in the society sent back to Africa in a year.
William Lloyd Garrison
The third and best-known group of antislavery reformers was headed by William Lloyd Garrison. In 1831 he broke with the gradualist persuaders of the American Colonization Society and began publishing his own paper, the Liberator. He was totally incapable of compromise. His approach was to mount a sweeping crusade condemning slavery as sinful and demanding its immediate abolishment. His crusade was personal and moral. In reality, he did not expect that all slaves would be freed immediately, but he did want and expect everyone to acknowledge the immorality of slavery. He took the truly radical step of demanding full social equality for African Americans. His determination electrified the antislavery movement, but his inability to compromise limited his effectiveness as a leader. His moral vehemence radicalized northern antislavery religious groups. He was stoned,dragged through the streets, and was once almost hanged by a Boston mob
American Anti-Slavery Society
started by Abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison and Theodore Weld in 1833. one of the largest abolitionist groups, it had chapters all over the US. the Philadelphia chapter was one of the most well-known. they signed petitions, held meetings, and published resolutions
Sojourner Truth
A famous African-American abolitionist. Morals horror over slavery engaged many northerners deeply in the abolitionist movement. They flocked to hear firsthand accounts of slavery by Frederick Douglass and this man, and by the white sisters from Southern California, Angelina and Sarah Grimké. Northerners eagerly read slave narratives and books
Frederick Douglass
former slave. abolitionist who gave firsthand accounts of what slavery was like which engaged more Northerners in the abolitionist movement. parted ways from William Lloyd Garrison because he wished to make specific suggestions for improvements of the lives of free African Americans rather than repeating the story of his life as a slave. Garrison denounced him as ungrateful when he chose the path of political action.
Along with other free African Americans, he worked under persistent discrimination, even from antislavery whites
Harriet Tubman
escaped from slavery in 1849, at age 27. returned to Maryland to rescue her family. continued returning to rescue relatives. eventually began the underground railroad, a smuggling route that freed as many as 100,000 slaves. continued to be an activist for women's suffrage in her later years
The Grimke Sisters
Angelina and Sarah. Northerners eagerly read slave narratives and books such as Theodore weld 1839 American Slavery As It Is (based in part on the recollections of Angela Grimké, whom Weld had married) that provided graphic details of abuse.
Harriet Beecher Stowe drew on the Grimké-Weld book for her immensely popular anti-slavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin, published in 1852. They were members of a prominent South Carolina slaveholding family, rejecting slavery out of religious conviction and moved north to join a Quaker community near Philadelphia. In the 1830s, they found themselves John into the growing anti-slavery agitation in the North. Because they knew about slavery firsthand, and they were in great demand as speakers. At first they spoke to "parlor meetings" of women only, as was considered proper. But interested in men kept sneaking into the talks and soon the sisters found them so speaking to makes gatherings. The meetings got larger and larger, and soon the sisters realize that they become the first female public speakers in America. In 1837 Angelina became the first woman to address a meeting of the Massachusetts state legislature (Sarah Bagley, the Lowell worker, was the second). The sisters challenged social norms to grounds. The anti-slavery movement was widely disapproved, and many famous male orators were criticized by the press and mopped at meetings. They were criticized for speaking because they were women.
A letter from a group of ministers cited the Bible and reprimanding the sisters for stepping out of "women's proper sphere a quote of silence and subordination.
Sarah answered the ministers in her 1838 Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women, being that "men and women were CREATED EQUAL.... Ever is right for a man to do, is right for woman." She followed with this ring in assertion: "I seek no favors for my sex. I surrender not our claim to be quality. All I ask of our brethren is, that they will take their feet from off our necks and permit us to stand up right on that ground which God designed us to occupy."
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Lyman Beecher's daughter. drew on the styles of Grimke and Weld. wrote the incredibly popular, anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin
Elija Lovejoy
antislavery editor in Illinois. was killed in 1837 and his press was destroyed
Abolitionist
The style of abolitionist writings and speeches was similar to the oratorical style of the religious revivalists.
Northern abolitionists believed that a full description of the evils of slavery would force southern slave owners to confront their wrongdoings and lead to a true act of repentance- freeing their slaves. They adopted another tactic of revivalists and temperance workers when, to enhance their powers of persuasion, they began to publish great numbers of antislavery tracts. Southern legislatures banned abolitionist literature. Hoping to prevent the spread of the abolitionist message, most southern states reinforced laws making it a crime to teach a slave how to read. Even in the North controversy over abolitionism was common. Irish immigrants, who found themselves pitted against free black people for jobs, were often violently anti-abolitionist. A tactic that abolitionists borrowed from revivalists- holding large and emotional meetings- opened the door to mob action. Abolitionism began as a social movement but soon intersected with sectional interests and became a national political issue. In the 1830s, massive abolitionist petitions drives gathered a total of nearly 700,000 petitions requesting the abolition of slavery and the slave trade in the District of Columbia but was rebuffed by Congress. Although abolitionist groups raised the nation's emotional temperature, they failed to achieve the moral unity they had hoped for, and they began to splinter. In 1840 the abolitionist movement officially split. The abolitionist movement opened up new possibilities for action
John Quincy Adams
after serving as president he went on to serve in Congress (and was the only former president to do so)
publicly denounced the gag rule as a violation of the constitutional right to petition and it was repealed in 1844. Key figure in the abolitionists' victory in the fight to free the slaves on the Amistad. won the case in the Supreme Court
Amistad
a Spanish ship that was carrying 53 African slaves. the slaves revolted against the crew in 1839. when the ship reached American waters, there was a fight over who was entitled to the ship. abolitionists like Lewis Tappan helped finance the fight, which went all the way to the Supreme Court. Adams won the case for Amistad defendants against the American gov't
Liberty Party
Among white abolitionist, William Lloyd Garrison remains controversial, especially after 1837, when your spouse to radical program that included women's rights, pacifism, and the abolition of the prisons and asylums that other reformers were working to establish. In 1840 the abolitionist movement formally split. The majority move toward party politics (which Garrison abhorred) , Founding this party and choosing James G. Birney (whom Theodore Weld had converted to abolitionism) as their presidential candidate. Thus the abolitionist movement, which began as an effort at moral reform, took its first major step into politics, and this step in turn led to the formation of the Republican Party in the 1850s and to the Civil War.
James Birney
converted to abolitionism by Theodore Weld. presidential candidate for the Liberty Party
David Walker
a free African American living in Boston. wrote a pamphlet in 1829 entitled "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." wherein he encouraged slave rebellion. white southerners blames such pamphlets for "stirring up trouble" among their slaves
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