Terms in this set (55)

Targeted immigrants for their free drinking habits. The largest reform organization of the period, the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance, founded in 1826, boasted more than 200,000 members by the mid-1830s. Dominated by evangelicals, local chapters used revival methods to encourage young men to stand up, confess their bad habits, and "take the pledge" to not drink. Excessive drinking was a national problem, and it appears to have been mostly a masculine one, for respectable women did not drink in public. Traditionally, drinking had been a basic part of men's working lives. There were many reasons to support temperance: heavy-drinking men hurt their families economically by spending their wages on drink, women had no recourse; Excessive drinking also led to violence and crime, both within the family and in the larger society. The new middle-class, preoccupied with respectability and morality, found the old easygoing drinking ways unacceptable. As work patterns changed, employers banned alcohol at work and increasingly considered drinking men not only unreliable but immoral. It became a social and political issue
Whigs favored it and the Democrats opposed it
German and Irish immigrants were hostile towards to temperance reform. The Panic of 1837 affected the temperance movement. Workers formed associations known as Washington Temperance Societies and spread the word that temperance was the workingman's best chance to survive economically and to maintain his independence. The wives, gathered together in Martha Washington Societies, were frequently even more committed to temperance than their husbands
Women became deeply involved in reform movements through their churches. It was they who did most of the fundraising for the whole missionary societies that we are beginning to send the Evangelical message worldwide -- at first by ministers alone, later bye married couples. Nearly every church had a maternal association, where mothers gather to discuss ways to raise their children as true Christians. These associations reflected a new and more positive definition of childhood. The Puritans had believed that children are born sinful and that their wills had to be broken before they could become godly. Early schools reflected these beliefs: teaching was by rote, and punishment was harsh and physical. Educational reformers, however, tended to believe that children are born in the sun and needed gentle nurturing and encouragement if they were to flourish. At home, mothers weekend plays a central role in child rearing. Outside the home women help spread the new public education paint pioneered by Horace Mann, secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education. Horace Mann insisted that to learn well, children needed schools with the pleasant and friendly atmosphere. One important way to achieve that atmosphere, Mann recommended, was to group children by ages rather than combining everyone in the traditional ungraded classroom and to pay special attention to the needs of the youngest people's. The spread of public education created the first real career opportunity for women.
The great champion of teacher training for women was Catharine Beecher, daughter of Lyman, who clearly saw her efforts as part of the larger work of establishing "the moral government of God." Arguing that women's moral and nurturing nature ideally suited them to be teachers, beat your campaign tirelessly on their behalf.
Angelina and Sarah. Northerners eagerly read slave narratives and books such as Theodore weld 1839 American Slavery As It Is (based in part on the recollections of Angela Grimké, whom Weld had married) that provided graphic details of abuse.
Harriet Beecher Stowe drew on the Grimké-Weld book for her immensely popular anti-slavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin, published in 1852. They were members of a prominent South Carolina slaveholding family, rejecting slavery out of religious conviction and moved north to join a Quaker community near Philadelphia. In the 1830s, they found themselves John into the growing anti-slavery agitation in the North. Because they knew about slavery firsthand, and they were in great demand as speakers. At first they spoke to "parlor meetings" of women only, as was considered proper. But interested in men kept sneaking into the talks and soon the sisters found them so speaking to makes gatherings. The meetings got larger and larger, and soon the sisters realize that they become the first female public speakers in America. In 1837 Angelina became the first woman to address a meeting of the Massachusetts state legislature (Sarah Bagley, the Lowell worker, was the second). The sisters challenged social norms to grounds. The anti-slavery movement was widely disapproved, and many famous male orators were criticized by the press and mopped at meetings. They were criticized for speaking because they were women.
A letter from a group of ministers cited the Bible and reprimanding the sisters for stepping out of "women's proper sphere a quote of silence and subordination.
Sarah answered the ministers in her 1838 Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women, being that "men and women were CREATED EQUAL.... Ever is right for a man to do, is right for woman." She followed with this ring in assertion: "I seek no favors for my sex. I surrender not our claim to be quality. All I ask of our brethren is, that they will take their feet from off our necks and permit us to stand up right on that ground which God designed us to occupy."
The style of abolitionist writings and speeches was similar to the oratorical style of the religious revivalists.
Northern abolitionists believed that a full description of the evils of slavery would force southern slave owners to confront their wrongdoings and lead to a true act of repentance- freeing their slaves. They adopted another tactic of revivalists and temperance workers when, to enhance their powers of persuasion, they began to publish great numbers of antislavery tracts. Southern legislatures banned abolitionist literature. Hoping to prevent the spread of the abolitionist message, most southern states reinforced laws making it a crime to teach a slave how to read. Even in the North controversy over abolitionism was common. Irish immigrants, who found themselves pitted against free black people for jobs, were often violently anti-abolitionist. A tactic that abolitionists borrowed from revivalists- holding large and emotional meetings- opened the door to mob action. Abolitionism began as a social movement but soon intersected with sectional interests and became a national political issue. In the 1830s, massive abolitionist petitions drives gathered a total of nearly 700,000 petitions requesting the abolition of slavery and the slave trade in the District of Columbia but was rebuffed by Congress. Although abolitionist groups raised the nation's emotional temperature, they failed to achieve the moral unity they had hoped for, and they began to splinter. In 1840 the abolitionist movement officially split. The abolitionist movement opened up new possibilities for action