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Terms in this set (15)
Wrote 2 large works about performance. Knew Bach and mentioned Bach in his writings. Wrote at a time before the Baroque had gone through a transition into the Rococo and Empfindsamkeit styles. Good source!
J. P. Kirnberger
A close friend and student of Bach. Wrote pedagogical works which mainly reflect Bach's teaching. Good source!
Versuch-- 1697-1773. Most likely knew Bach and heard him play. Wrote a treatise on playing the flute. Uses language in his treatise to indicate that he is knowledgeable in both the old and knew styles. For example: the use of the word: Affetuoso a term rarely found in older Baroque repertoire.
W. F. Bach
Bach's son, wrote in a style similar to Bach and perhaps we can learn more about Bach by looking at his writings. In relation to ornamentation, Bach included an ornamentation, chart in his notebook for Wilhelm Friedmann.
L' Art de Toucher le Clavecin-- Important source but obviously discusses the French style more than the German
Not necessarily a reliable source for Bach as his treatise was written later and references the emerging newer galant, rococco style.
Nineteenth Century Music Revival-- Brahms, Mendelssohn and Franz
The idea of performance practice has been around for a while. Article talking about the new music revival corresponding to Mendelssohn which naturally raised the question of how the older music that was discovered should be performed. The article mentioned continuo realization in particular. Instigated a war as some, Brahms and Mendelsohn thought that the continuo needed to be sparse and provide harmonic structure only, while others (Robert Franz) thought it would be ok to add more romantic elements, florid figurations, counterpoint, etc. Turned into to war of sorts with name calling etc.
The difference between grammar and rhetoric is great enough, but the distance between musical notation and the art of playing is infinitely greater.
Modern performance practice movement
Began in the late 1800's with Dannreuter in 1893, Wanda Landowska in 1904, and others, and even prior to this we have evidence that some performers were already thinking along these lines. Initiated at the turn of the century but wasn't really popular until after the second world war.
Goals of performance practice
To recapture those elements that were not neccesarily specified in the score and might have been lost over time. This included study of period instruments, notation, intended dynamics, articulation, tempi and rhythm. Although this movement existed around the turn of the 20th century it did not gain in popularity until shortly after the Second World War. When it did, however, a fusion of the musicological and performance worlds was initiated and the way music was played began to change.
Changes that occurred with the performance practice movement were good and bad.
BAD: Many less scholarly performers attempted to render "correct" performances, but they had so little information that the result was often farther from Bach's music than before-- Change to harpsichord performances only but using a modern harpsichord and making full and frequent use of all the stops, producing sounds that would have been impossible in the baroque. (Also the switch in instrument is, I think, simply an assumption on the sonority Bach would have wanted, as he wrote "Clavier" as a blaket term of his works and these works he himself transcribed for other instruments.
Making gradual dynamics unimportant harpsichord could not produce these.
The greater availibility of good sources from which to make scholarly choices
The objective of the performer is to "touch the heart, excite or appease the movements of the soul, and to carry the auditor from one passion to another..."
C. P. E. Bach quote
"Play from the soul, not like a trained bird!"
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