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Milady Chapter 17

Finger Waving

The process of shaping and directing the hair into an S pattern through the use of the fingers, combs, and waving lotion.

Waving Lotion

A type of hair gel that makes the hair pliable enough to keep it in place during the finger waving procedure. It is tradionalally made from karaya gum, taken from the trees found in Africa and India.


The stationary foundation of the curl, which is the area closest to the scalp, the panel of hair on which the roller is placed.


The section of the pin curl between the base and first arc of the circle that gives the curl its direction and movement, the hair between the scalp and the first turn of the roller.


Part of the curl that forms a complete circle and ultimately the wave. The size of the circle determines the width of the wave ant its strength.

Full stem curl

Allows for the greatest mobility. The curl is placed completely off the base.


A section of the hair that is molded in a circular movement in preparation for the formation of curls. Shapings are either open or closed-end.

Open center curls

Produce even, smooth waves and uniformcurls.

Closed center curls

Produce waves that get smaller toward the end.

Triangular Base

Pin curls are recommended along the front or facial hairline to prevent breaks or splits in the finished hairstyle. The triangular base allows a portion of the hair from each curl to overlap the next, and this style can be combed into a wave without splits.

Square Base

Pin Curls are suitable for curly hairstyles without much volume or lift. They can be used on any part of the head and will comb out with lasting results. To avoid splits in the comb out, stagger the sectioning as shown in the illustration (square base, brick lay fashion)

Carved or Sculptured Curls

Pin curls sliced from a shapimg and formed without lifting the hair from the head

Ridge Curls

Pin curls placed immediately behind or below a ridge to form a wave

Barrel Curls

Have larger center openings and are fastened to the head in a standing position on a rectangular base. They have the same effect as stand-up pin curls.

Cascade Curls

Also known as 'stand-up curls', are used to create height in the hair design. They are fastened to the head in a standing position to allow the hair to flow upward and the downward.

On base

Also known as 'full base'. For full volume, the roller sits directly on its base. Overdirect (higher than 90 degrees) the strand slightly in front of the base, and roll the hair down to the base. The roller should fit on the base.

Half Base

For medium volume, the roller sits halfway on its base and halfway behind the base. Hold the strand straight up 90 degrees from the head and roll the hair down.

Off Base

For the least volume, the roller sits completely off the base. Hold the strand 45 degrees down from the base and roll the hair down.

Hot Rollers

To be used only on dry hair. They are heated either electrically or by steam, and they are a great time saver in the salon.Follow the same setting patterns as with wet setting, but allow the hot roller to stay on the hair for about 10 min. A thermal protector can be sprayed on the hair before setting. The result is a curl that is weaker than a wet-set curl, but stronger and longer lasting than can be achieved using a curling iron. Spray on products to each section of the hair to create a stronger set.

Back Combing

Also known as teasing, ratting, matting or french lacing, involves combing small sections of hair from the ends toward the scalp, causing shorter hair to mat at the scalp and form a cushionor base.

Back brushing

Also known as ruffing, is use to build a soft cushion or to mesh two or more curl patterns together for a uniform and smooth comb out.

Hair Wrapping

A technique used to keep curly hair smooth and straight while retaining a beautiful shape. Curly hair can be wrapped around the head to give it a smooth, rounded contour resulting in an effect that is similar to that attained with rollers.

Paddle brushes

With thier large, flat bases, are well suited for mid-length to longer-length hair. Some have ball-tipped nylon pins and staggered pin patterns that help keep the hair from snagging.

Vent brushes

With their ventilated design, are used to speed up the blowdrying process, and they are ideal for blowdrying fine hair and adding lift at the scalp.

Thermal Irons

Implements made of quality steel that are used to curl dry hair. They provide an even heat that is completely controlled by the stylist. Electric curling irons have cylindrical barrels ranging from 1/2" to 3 inches in diameter.

Thermal iron basic parts

Rod handle, shell handle, barrel or rod, and shell.

Spiral Curl

Method of curling the hair by winding a strand around the rod. It creates hanging curls suitable for medium to long hairstyles.

Hard press

Removes 100% of the curl, is accomplishes by applying the thermal pressing comb twice on each side of the hair. A hard press can also be done by first passing a hot thermal iron through the hair. Also called a 'double press'

Coarse or extremely curly hair

Have qualities that make it difficult to press. Coarse hair has the greatest diameter, and during the pressing precess it requires more heat and pressure then mediu, or fine hair.

It grows

If the scalp is tight and the hair is coarse, press the hair in the direction in which __________ to avoid injury to the scalp.


If the scalp is _______ , remember to use enough tension to press the hair satisfactorily.

Conditioning Treatments

Involve cosmetic preparations for the hair and scalp, thorough brushing and scalp massage. Usually results in better hair pressing.

Pressing Combs

There are two types, regular and electric. Both should be contructed of good quality stainless steel or brass. The handle is usually made of wood, because wood does not readily absorb heat.

Touch ups

Sometimes necessary when the hair becomes curly again due to perspiration, dampness, or other conditions. The process is the same as for the original pressing treatment, with the shampoo omitted.

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