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APUSH Era 8 (1945-1980) Review Loftfield
Terms in this set (60)
A "non-confrontational" conflict between the US and Soviet Union lasting from 1945 to 1991. The nations never faced each other on the battlefield, but deadly threats went on for years.
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to gain weapons superiority by building up their respective armed forces and weapons (including the Hydrogen bomb): Eisenhower suggested in a speech that the "military industrial complex" who benefited from the Arms Race, played an important role in promoting this competition
Berlin Blockade and Airlift
In 1948, USSR blockaded Berlin after saying that the 4-power administration of the city was no longer in effect; US & Britain responded by airlifting necessities to West Berliners for over 10 months; the Soviets eventually lifted the blockade but Berlin becomes a focal point of the Cold War
Agreement to form mutual defense arrangements, such as NATO and the Warsaw Pact, which guarantee that if one nation is attacked, other nations will come to its defense.
American policy (known as the Truman Doctrine) of resisting further expansion of communism around the world by means of monetary aid (example Marshall Plan) to support struggling democracies - though money alone will prove insufficient
Central Intelligence Agency- Used during the Cold War to carry out covert operations to weaken or overthrow governments unfriendly to the U.S.
A plan that the U.S. came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
competition between the US and the USSR during the Cold War to advance their space programs and weaponize space. Soviet launching of "Sputnik" satellite in 1957 put the U.S. behind (NASA was launched to catch us up). Then came a man in space (USSR wins) and a man on the moon (US wins): A treaty eliminated weaponizing space (1967).
Name given by Winston Churchill to the imaginary line that separated Western (Free) Europe and Soviet controlled (Communist) Eastern Europe
in 1961, after the embarrassment of the Bay of Pigs, the Khrushchev demanded the removal of western troops from Berlin, tensions rose: the USSR solved their Berlin emigration problem by building the Berlin Wall
period of elevated birth rates in the US following WWII (1946-1964) resulting in the largest generation in US history
Bay of Pigs
1961 - 1400 American-trained Cuban expatriates left from Nicaragua to try to topple Castro's regime, landing at the Bay of Pigs in southern Cuba where the local populace refused to support them. President Kennedy withdrew promised air support and most of the invaders were easily killed or captured by the Cuban forces.
House Un-American Activities Committee- accused people of being communists, beginning with Hollywood.
war that began in 1950 when Communist North Korea (with China/USSR aid) invaded Non-Communist South Korea (defended by the US and the UN Security Council). The first military action taken by the UN (88% US) it came to a draw in 1954 when the country was divided at the 38th parallel which is how it remains to this day.
Cuban Missile Crisis
October 1962, the U.S. discovered Soviet missiles in Cuba and demanded their removal and blockaded the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev agreed, on condition that US leave Cuba (and a secret promise by JFK to remove missiles the US had in Turkey): led to a Hot Line being established between the two countries
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Cold War diplomacy in which U.S. volunteers help third world nations (in Africa, Asia, and Latin America), thereby preventing the spread of communism by helping to eliminate poverty
Second Red Scare
period in US (1947-1957) when fears of Communism led to violations of due process and human rights: included the blacklisting of 500 Hollywood professionals, the arrest and execution of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg (civilian convicted of giving atomic secrets to the USSR)
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated: the ruling did not result in immediate desegregation but to resistance that had to be challenged over and over like at Central High School and at the University of Mississippi
A deliberate and public refusal to obey a law considered unjust
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Plessy v. Fergusson
1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Civil rights protesters , and college students, who tried to desegregate lunch counters and waiting rooms by sitting down and refusing to leave. Developed by SNCC the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Federal law that increased government supervision of local election practices, suspended the use of literacy tests to prevent people from voting, and expanded government efforts to register voters.
Condition of being deprived of the right to vote: in the south, blacks were denied the right to vote by means of violence and threats, literacy tests, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses
Mexican-American migrant farm worker & cofounder of the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee in 1963. Helped exploited Chicano workers through fasts and with his successful "boycott grapes" movement. These ultimately led to better pay, recognition of farm workers' collective bargaining rights, and other benefits.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
A Native American organization founded by Dennis Banks and Russell Means in 1968 to protest government policies and injustices suffered by Native Americans; in 1973, organized the armed occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
A movement or doctrine that advocates or demands for women the same rights granted men, such as equal economic or political status and "Equal Pay for Equal Work." The movement sponsored the failed Equal Rights Amendment
National Organization for Women
this organization calls for equal employment opportunity and ending gender discrimination in hiring. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
Roe v. Wade
Supreme Court ruling that says state laws could not restrict abortion during the 1st 3 months of pregnancy. Based on 4th amendment rights of a person to be secure in their persons, and right to privacy. (1973)
Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18
An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.
LBJ's platform; increased the size and involvement of the government in society. Extension of New Deal programs and Civil Rights (24th amendment, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Medicare/Medicaid)
A government health insurance program established in 1965 to help elderly people pay for medical care. It was designed to ensure that the nation's elderly would be able to afford proper medical treatment. (It's counterpart for the poor is Medicaid.)
Students for a Democratic Society-an anti-establishment New Left group, founded in 1960, this group charged that corporations and large government institutions had taken over America; they called for a restoration of "participatory democracy" and greater individual freedom, wrote the Port Huron Statement
"Hippies" - protested Vietnam War; rejected many ideas of their parents' generation; used marijuana; helped start a sexual revolution
Conflict pitting North Vietnam and South Vietnamese communist guerrillas against the South Vietnamese government, aided after 1961 by the United States: the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution passed by Congress gave LBJ the authority to pursue the war as he wanted
A disturbance that grew out of a police raid on the Stonewall Inn, a popular hang-out for gays in Manhattan 's Greenwich Village in 1969. Such raids long had been routine, but this one provoked a riot as the crowd fought back. Gay Pride marches are still held on the anniversary of this riot.
Exposé of pesticides by Rachel Carson which convinced Congress to pass Clean Air and water laws and launched the environmental movement
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
Environmental Protection Agency
An agency of the federal government created in 1970 and charged with administering all the government's environmental legislation. It also administers policies dealing with toxic wastes. It is the largest federal independent regulatory agency.
In 1973, US support for Israel led to an oil embargo by OPEC countries. This caused high gasoline prices for Americans and in some areas, shortages at gas stations.
process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the old region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment: in the 1970s, industry left the Great Lakes region causing it to become the "Rust Belt" and moved to the "Sunbelt" region
label Nixon gave to middle-class Americans who supported him, obeyed the laws, and wanted "peace with honor" in Vietnam, he contrasted this group with students and civil rights activists who disrupted the country with protests in the late 1960s and early 1970s
Three Mile Island
Nuclear Power Plant in Harrisburg, Penn. which failed, causing radiation to be admitted in the air; symbolized dangers of nuclear energy.
A new approach to foreign relations with communist nations that was introduced by Nixon for the purpose of using diplomacy rather that military intimidation to try to work out differences. It resulted in reestablished relations between the US and China, as well as the SALT II treaty with the Soviet Union.
Kent State gained national attention on May 4, 1970 when an Ohio National Guard unit shot at students in response to war protests on and around campus, killing four and wounding nine. This event, known as the Kent State shootings, propagated intense national response as hundreds of schools closed due to an eight million student strike.
mutually assured destruction
A doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. (MAD)
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 Congressional resolution that authorized President Johnson to commit US troops to South Vietnam and fight a war against north Vietnam
Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual). In North America, the process began in the early nineteenth century and became a mass phenomenon by the second half of the twentieth century.
G.I. Bill of Rights
The G. I. Bill of Rights or Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G. I.s) as well as one-year of unemployment compensation. It also provided loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses.
Immigration Act of 1965
abolished national origins quotas established in 1924, dramatically increased immigration by placing a cap not a quota (especially from Asia and Latin America)
Name of the book by Betty Friedan that discussed the frustration of many women in the 1950's and 1960's who felt they were restricted to their roles of mother and homemaker. Considered catalyst to feminist movement.
Fourth Great Awakening
The resurgence of Christian faith in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s: One of its central features was a growing concern with the family. It was based on evangelism, especially that of Billy Graham, and fostered a conservative resurgence which found a home in the Republican Party
1972, The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment, Ford becomes President
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