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PTA 110- Intro to PTA
Terms in this set (86)
Patient Care Model
Plan of care
Concept of Disablement
Chronic and acute conditions can have various impacts on the functioning of specific body systems, on basic human performance, and on people's functioning in necessary, usual, expected, and personally desired roles in society.
activities of daily living, (activities of daily living) include bathing, grooming, brushing teeth, eating, and dressing
instrumental activities of daily living: needed for independent living; housekeeping, shopping, cooking, laundry, using telephone, managing finances; nutrition; social relationships and resources; self-concept and coping; and home environment.
Americans with Disabilities act
Americans with Disabilities Act, Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and comerical buildings.
-Trained in England from 1906 to 1916
-organized the first pt department in the army in 1918
-lead the way toward higher standards in treatment and started pt on the road toward greater professional service to pts
-President of the AWPTA from 1920-1923
Commission on accreditation in physical therapy education-responsible for evaluating and accrediting professional (entry level) PT and PTA educational programs
-Establishes minimal/critical standards of PT professional education
-Monitors progress through annual reporting and 10 year accreditation process.
treatment to prevent disability or to restore functioning through the use of exercise, heat, massage, and other methods to improve circulation, flexibility, and muscle strength
evidence based practice
-clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
-PT fund created to fund research
-Interventions used in physical therapy based on research that demonstrates the reliability and validity of the procedures.
-Defined physiatrist (physician specializing in rehabilitation)
-Increased number of hospitals-- jobs
-Provided federal grants to modernize hospitals that had become obsolete due to lack of capital investment throughout the period of the Great Depression and World War II (1929 to 1945); in return for federal funds, facilities agreed to provide free or reduced charge medical services to persons unable to pay.
-Too much for PT to do-- additional assistance needed- begin creation of PTA
The impact of acute and chronic conditions on the functioning of specific body systems, on basic human performance and on people's functioning in expected roles in society.
-Examination process that focuses on the individual's impairments, functional limitations, and disability.
Active pathology is the interruption of or interference with the normal processes and the simultaneous efforts of the organism to restore itself to a normal state by mobilizing the body's defense and coping mechanisms.
1. pathology-- TBI
2. impairment-- Balance
3. functional limitation-- Ambulation
4. disability-- Employment
1936, organized MMT based on kinesiological principles
Identified how to test specific muscles
Worked with polio patients
Social Security Act
A 1935 law passed during the Great Depression that was intended to provide a minimal level of sustenance to older Americans and thus save them from poverty.
A state-wide program known as the "__ __" was developed to study the cause and effects of polio.
-Created healthcare teams: orthotic surgeons, public nurse, PT, brace makers, stenographer
Muscle Tone = Postural Reflexive and Reaction = Muscle Patterns and Synergies
-Bobath in 1940's by Karol and Berta Bobath
Based upon relearning normal body movement
encourages use of both sides of the body
-Patients actively participate
-Manual facilitation and inhibition techniques are employed to present the patient with a "normal" sensory experience thereby encouraging a more functional motor response.
American Women's physical therapeutic association
first national professional organization for physical therapists
National foundation for Infantile Paralysis
referred to as "The Foundation" was established for research, education and patient services
A program added to the Social Security system in 1965 that provides hospitalization insurance for the elderly and permits older Americans to purchase inexpensive coverage for doctor fees and other health expenses.
Guide to professional conduct.
Guide for conduct for affiliate member.
HIPAA and other federal laws guidelines.
National, state, and regional chapters
PT's and PTA's are members
problem oriented medical record: the charting of medical records based on a patient's problem
- Used to delineate the consequences of disease and injury both at the level of the person and at the level of society.
-Provides for conceptual basis for all elements of patient/client management.
Any loss or abnormality of anatomical, physiological, mental, or psychological structure or function.
The restriction of the ability to perform a physical action, task, or activity in the efficient, typically expected, or competent manner at the level of the whole organism or person.
The inability to perform or a limitation in the performance of actions, tasks, and activities usually expected in specific social roles that are customary for the individual or expected for the person's status or role in a specific sociocultural context and physical environment.
Every session begins with:
-Verification of person/information
-Patient interactions (questions/feelings)
Five components of patient care
History- lifestyle, occupation
Tests and measures- Outcomes measures
Chart by exception
Consider effects of:
-chronicity/severity of current problem
-Presence of preexisting conditions
-Stability of condition
-Labels that identify the impact of the condition on function at the systemic level (usually musculoskeletal) and of the person as a whole.
-Should describe the problem in a way that directs the selection of interventions.
-Preferred practice methods.
-Predicted optimal level of improvement of function and amount of time needed to reach that level.
-Plan of care with statement of:
expected functional outcomes
predicted level of optimal improvement
specific interventions to be used
frequency needed to meet goals
-Coordination, communication, and documentation
-Patient/client/family related instruction
Performing selected tests and measures to evaluate progress.
Occurs at every visit
Determines whether goals are/aren't met in expected time frames.
Performed as a part of the discharge process through standardized measures to characterize or quantify the impact of the PT interventions.
Note completed to reflect final treatment session with the patient/client.
Summary completed by the PT to evaluate progress of patient/client during treatment outlined in the plan of care.
Plan of care
Duration and frequency of interventions
-Standardized communication within the medical field.
Initial note (Evaluation)
Interim/ongoing notes (Progress notes)
Discharge notes (D/C summary)
-Vital part of the rehab process
-Brings the patient towards self-reliance
Components of Home Program
communication that uses factors other than words, such as gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, talking distance, touch, posture, and body language
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation; isometric contraction against max resistance, end of ROM held for 6 secs; then relax & slow, passive stretch
-Technique used to enhance movement and motor control
-Emphasizes joint and position sense stimuli
-Uses tactile, visual, and auditory stimuli
-Kabot and Knott
1936, organized MMT based on kinesiological principles
resisted or isometric movement is used to assess the condition of muscles, tendons, attachments
Introduced by Jonas Salk in 1954 and given out to the public by 1955. It was an inactivated polio vaccine that generates serum antibodies to neutralize the virus in the bloodstream.
movement therapy in hemiplegia: a neurophysiological approach
-Detailed observations of movement patterns in order to precisely describe the natural history of recovery of movement and function after a stroke.
-Collaboration of APTA, American Occupational Therapy Association, and American Speech, Language, and Hearing Association; focus on legislation and regulation issues regarding reinbursement
practice mode in which physical therapists examine, evaluate, diagnose, and provide interventions to patients/clients without a referral from a physician; allowing PT to be an autonomous profession
A system that combines the financing and the delivery of appropriate, cost-effective health care services to its members.
By 2020 PT will be provided by PT's who are doctors of PT, recognized by consumers, and other health care professionals as the practitioners of choice to whom consumers have direct access for the diagnosis of, Interventions for, and preventions of impairments, func. limitations, and disabilities related to movement, func., and health.
Amended Hill-Burton Act
-Created nursing homes, rehab hospitals, chronic disease facilities
-Resulted in increased need of health care workers to serve in these facilities
-1960's explosion of health care workers
PTA rights in APTA
PTA's become affiliate members
May attend all meetings
May speak and make motions
Hold community appointments (amended in 1992 to hold chapter positions)
May be chapter affiliate delegates
Receive the PT journal
Formation of the affiliate special interest group
Created in 1989
Promotes the role of PTA in the APTA
created in 1990
Includes PT and PTA students
National Assembly of PTA's
Included national officers and regional directors
Representative body of national assembly
Created PTA house of delegates
Issues are sent to APTA HOD for final approval
2 reps attend HOD (speak, debate, make and 2nd motions--vote)
American physiotherapy association
previously the WPTA, name changed in 1922
-Wartime president of the association
-Became director of NFIP
-Involved in educational components of PT programs
Army medical specialist corps
War emergency training classes
Established 2nd lieutenant ranking
1955 opened to males
- appointed 1st superior of reconstructive aides
- role= recruited & arranged training for reconstruction aids
-Reconstructive aide to keep work force going
1st Formal education program
3 month classroom
The Great Depression
Lots of people sick
Lots of people unable to access health care
AMA involved in progressing educational process with accreditation
13 schools approved
Began registry, code of ethics, and disciplinary policy
Advanced clinical competency
Involves exam, experience, and references
First specialist in 1986
Instruct (what, when, why, how many, how often)
Document in medical record that it was given/covered
-Must follow up-
Ensure accuracy, frequency of program
-Licensing process- legislative (law)
-Discipline- affecting use of license
-Board includes PT's, PTA's, lawyers, and public members
federation of state boards of physical therapy-independent agency that has been instrumental in coordinating activity among all the state boards that regulate physical therapy.
PT scope of practice
PT as a health profession
Primary purpose is the promotion of optimal health and function.
Accomplished through examination, evaluation, diagnosis, and intervention to remediate impairments, functional limitations, and disabilities as related to movement and health.
Hierarchy to define profession
1. Lifetime commitment
2. Representative organization- APTA
3. Specialized education- CAPTE
4. Services to clients
5. Autonomy of judgement- direct access
Didactic and clinical learning experiences that reflect contemporary practice.
PT and PTA students must complete biology, A&P, kinesiology, and general ed.
PT must study further into foundational sciences, clinical sciences, administration, and research.
Provides guidelines for the content of educational programs.
Subjective, objective, assessment, plan
PTA scope of practice
first health care worker or agency to assess a person with a health need
Services provided by a medical specialist or hospital staff members to a patient whose primary care was provided first by a general practitioner.
specialized care: cancer, burn, plastics Hesi
return to wellness
Collaboration between PT and other healthcare providers including nurses, physicians, OT, ST, dentists, social workers, orthotics/prosthetics, massage therapists, etc.
-Requires collaboration at every level.
an effective interpersonal process—enacted through teamwork or group efforts with professionals from other disciplines (i.e., nurses, physicians, neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists)—that facilitates the achievement of goals that cannot be reached by one practitioner working alone
Interprofessional Collaboration pros
Better able to address complex problems
Reduction of duplication/fragmentation
Decision making better with more input
Interprofessional collaboration cons
May overwhelm patient
May not produce better quality of care
Reduces one-on-one relationships
Takes time from other patients
differences among people in a workforce owing to race, ethnicity, and gender
Maintain sufficient space
Safe space for transitions/ambulation
Ensure stability, security, accessibility of equipment
Do not leave patients unattended
Prepare area/equipment before beginning treatment
Ensure all staff trained with patient's specific needs
Safe storage of heavy/hazardous materials
Effective Patient communication
Interact directly with patient
Greet with respect
Identify self and others
Position yourself at eye level
Listen carefully and patiently
Ask questions that require brief response
Determine if assistance is needed before seeking it
Barriers to effective communication
Excessive talking distance
Noise and environmental confusion
Inability for receiver to comprehend
Inability for receiver to interpret medical language
Inadequate about of feedback to/from
Differences in interpretation of messages
Cultural, gender, or age difference
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