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Causes of Weather Vocabulary
Terms in this set (23)
A large volume of air that has the same characteristics, such as humidity and temperature, as its source region.
Form over the interior of Canada and Alaska. In winter these air masses can carry frigid air southward. In summer the cool dry air brings relief from hot humid weather.
Form over the cold waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific. The one that forms over the North Pacific primarily affects the West Coast of the United States, occasionally bringing heavy rains in winter.
air masses originate over the warm waters of the tropics and Gulf of Mexico, where heat and moisture are transferred to the overlying air from the waters below. The northward movement of tropical air masses transports warm moist air into the United States, increasing the potential for precipitation. In the Southwest it is the source of hot dry air especially in the summer.
air mass modification
Air masses can become modified as they move away from their source region. In its source region an air mass gains properties which are characteristic of the underlying surface. It may be cold or warm and it may be dry or mois
The direction of the winds are influenced by the Earth's rotation. This results in fluids and objects moving in an apparent curved path rather then a straight line.
Between latitudes 30 degrees North and 30 degrees South are two belts of wind .They are warm, steady breezes that blow almost continuously. The Coriolis Effect makes the trade winds appear to be curving to the west, whether they are traveling to the equator from the south or north.
Between thirty and sixty degrees latitude, the winds that move toward the poles appear to curve to the east. Because winds are named from the direction in which they originate, these winds are called prevailing westerlies. Prevailing westerlies in the Northern Hemisphere are responsible for many of the weather movements across the United States and Canada
At about sixty degrees latitude in both hemispheres, the prevailing westerlies join with the polar easterlies to reduce upward motion. The polar easterlies form when the atmosphere over the poles cools. This cool air then sinks and spreads over the surface. As the air flows away from the poles, it is turned to the west by the Coriolis effect. Again, because these winds begin in the east
a belt of calm air and sea occurring in both the northern and southern hemispheres between the trade winds and the westerlies. Near latitude 30 degrees North and 30 degrees South. The Earth's Major deserts such as the Sahara desert are under these high pressure areas.
an area of calm weather. The trade winds coming from the south and the north meet near the equator. These converging trade winds produce general upward winds as they are heated, so there are no steady surface winds.
A large temperature gradient in the upper level air combined with the Coriolis Effect resulting in strong Westerly winds. fast flowing, river of air found in the atmosphere at around 12 km above the surface of the Earth just under the tropopause
a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena
When cold dense air displaces warm air, which is less dense, up along a steep slope
Advancing warm air displaces cold air.
When two air masses meet but neither advances, the boundary between then stalls.
A cold air mass that moves so quickly that it overtakes the warm front and forces the warm air upward. As the warm air is lifted, the advancing cold air mass collides with the cold air mass in front of the warm front.
high pressure system
sinking air moves away from the systems center when it reaches the earths surface. winds spiral out of this system center in a clockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere and a counter clockwise rotation in the Southern Hemisphere. These bring sunny skies.
Low pressure system
Air from the outside of the system replaces the rising air, this air spirals inward toward the center then then upward. The winds spiral in this system center in a counterclockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere and a clockwise rotation in the Southern Hemisphere.
a line on a map connecting places registering the same amount or ratio of some geographical or meteorological phenomenon or phenomena.
a line on a map connecting points having the same temperature at a given time or on average over a given period.
lines of equal pressure
A record of weather data for a particular site at a particular time
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