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Art History Final

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Apollo 11 Stones
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Terms in this set (124)
- Namibia. c. 25,500-25,300 BCE. Charcoal on Stone.
- South west coast of Africa
- Homo sapians, anatomically modern humans who evolved from an earlier species of hominids
- Unidentified animal form draw resembling a feline in appearance but with human hind legs that were probably added later
- Possibly a therianthrope, part human and part animal
- May suggest a complex system of shamanistic belief
- A site of ritual significance used by many over thousands of years
- Stone offers evidence that Homo sapiens in the Middle Stone Ages were not anatomically modern, but behaviorally modern too
- These early humans possessed the new and unique capacity for modern symbolic thought long before what was previously understood.
- Art mobilier, small scale prehistoric art that is moveable, not unique to Africa
Image: Apollo 11 Stones
- Lasacaux, France. Paleolithic Europe. 15,000-13,000 BCE. Rock painting.
- Given the large scale of many of the animal images, we can presume that the artist worked deliberately
- Speculated that the images play a role in "hunting magic"
- Suggests that the prehistoric people who used the cave may have believed that a way to overpower their prey involved creating images of it during rituals designed to ensure a successful hunt
- Survival was entirely dependent on successful foraging and hunting
- Another theory suggests that the images communicate narratives
- Most famous of all of the known caves in the region
Image: The Great Hall of the Bulls
- Tequixquiac, central Mexico. 14.000-7000 BCE. Bone.
- Found at a depth of about 40 feet
- Geography and climate of this area was considerably different in the prehistoric era than it is today
- Sculpture was made from the now fossilized remains of the sacrum of an extinct camelid
- Sacrum = large triangular bone at the base of the spine
- Holes were cut into the end of the bone to represent nostril
- The two circular spaces that represent the nasal cavities were carefully carved and are perfectly symmetrical and were likely shaped by a sharp instrument
- Because the carving was made in a period before writing had developed, it is likely impossible to know what the sculpture meant
- Sacrum was seen as sacred and some Mesoamerican Indian languages named this bone with words referring to sacredness and divine
Image: Camelid sacrum in the shape of a canine
- Tassili. n'Affer, Algeria. 6000-4000 BCE. Pigment on rock
- Algeria is Africa's largest country and most of it falls within the Sahara Desert. Hosts a rich rock art concentration
- Water and sand erosion in Tassili n'Ajjer carved out a landscape of thin passageways, large arches, and high-pillared rocks
- Region has been inhabited since Neolithic times, when the environment was much wetter and sustained a wider extent of flora and fauna
- Images are most often figurative and frequently depict animals, are also many images of human figures, sometimes with accessories such as weaponry or clothing
Image: Running horned woman
- Susa, Iran. 4200-3500 BCE. Painted terra cotta.
- Animal forms and geometric patterns
- People lived in a very fertile river valley
- Around this time they built a temple on a mountain top
- Would burry their dead with pottery
- Before writing, so we have no idea why they would do this
- Handmade, painted clay
- Quite thin
- Perhaps made on a slow wheel
- Circular forms balanced by linear forms balanced by geometric forms
- Mountain goat occupies the largest rectangle
- Not a naturalistic image, his body is reduced to two geometric shapes (triangles)
- Detailed, can see his beard, ears, tails, etc...
- Above him is a pattered band depicting an elongated dog
- Above the dogs are rows of birds
- Geometric elements reflect the shape of the object itself
- Unidentifiable objects like criss-crossed pattern
- Maybe the patterns had meaning
- Maybe the animals were associated with things with fertility
- Pots were found because and excavator was looking for the tomb of David and came across this cemetery
Image: Beaker with ibex motifs

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