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- Sumerian. c. 2600-2400 BCE. Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone
- Ur is one of the first great cities
- Was found in one of the largest graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur, lying in the corner of a chamber above the right shoulder of a man.
- Original function is not yet understood
- Main panels are known as "War" and "Peace"
- War shows one of the earliest representations of a Sumerian army.
- Peace panel depicts animals, fish, and other goods being brought in procession to a banquet. Seated figures drink to the accompaniment of a musician playing a lyre.
- Thought that it was a Standard, but we don't really know
- Was intentionally buried, part of an elaborate burial ritual
- Small enough to be easily carried while being beautifully and elaborately decorated
- Sound box?
- Contains currency?
- Divided into 3 registers and framed with pieces of shell
- Rivers allowed civilization to grow a surplus of food that allowed for an organization of society were not everybody had to be in the field all the time
- Once there was enough food, some people could devote their life to being rulers, and some to become artists
- Bottom register is the poorest, working class members of society, and they all seem to be bringing things to a destination
- Above that people are herding animals. Might be bringing them for sacrifice or taxation, for the king
- Most important, wealthiest, most powerful figures are in the top register. King is seated in the middle and he is so large that his head breaks the frame . This is hierarchical scale. He also wears different clothing. Other figures are joining the king in festivity, they are larger than the people who are serving them. Also people on the right who are entertainers
- War side shows terrible scenes of violence
- Bottom register shows carts being lead by donkeys and people being trampled. You can see the blood in their wounds. Theres naturalism in the battle thats taking place. It seems like the animals are picking up speed like they're charging at the enemy
- Middle register shows soldiers ready for battle. They are in full garb, helmets have even been found in the cemetery. Get a sense of structure and organization. Towards the middle of this register you see the battle taking place, victorious soldiers slaying their enemies, and captured soldiers being taken away
- Top register also has the king in the center with his head breaking the frame. On the left there is a chariot and soldiers and on the right there are other soldiers or attendants bringing prisoners of war to the king. We can tell they are prisoners because they are naked, wounded, and bleeding
- Just about everyone is seen in perfect profile
- Everyone has one eye that is looking out at us
- Familiar to Egyptian art
- Giza, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2550-2490 BCE. Cut limestone
- The three primary pyramids on the Giza plateau were built over the span of three generations by the rulers Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure
- Each pyramid was part of a royal mortuary complex that also included a temple at its base and a long stone causeway
- The shape of the pyramid was a solar reference
- Khufu: Largest of the three. Constructed of locally quarried stones. Interior chambers and passageways are unique and include a number of enigmatic features. Included 7 large boat pits and were probably intended for use in the afterlife to transport the king to stellar destinations. Has 2 massive, rectangular stone line pits that contained completely disassembled boats. Boats appear to have been used for the funerary procession and as ritual objects connected to the last earthly voyage of the king
- Khafre: Second largest pyramid of Giza. Built by Khufu's second son Khafre. Interior plan is much simpler than that of Khufu's pyramid, with a single burial chamber. The mortuary temple at the base was more complex and filled with statuary of the king. The valley temple, located at the east end of the causeway leading from the pyramid base, is beautifully preserved. It was constructed of megalithic blocks sheathed with granite and floors of polished white calcite.
- The Great Sphinx: Right next to the causeway leading from Khafre's valley temple to the mortuary temple. Close association indicated that this was carved for Khafre. Carved from the bedrock of the Giza plateau. Lion was a royal symbol as well as being connection with the sun as a symbol of the horizon. The king's head is on a smaller scale than the body because of a defect in the stone which made it weak. Directly in front of the Sphinx is a separate temple dedicated to the worship of its cult, but very little is known about it.
- Menkaure: smallest of the three. Pyramid chambers are more complex than the other. Within his mortuary and valley temples are series of statues of the king, including King Menkaure and queen.
- Near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. c. 1473-1458 BCE. Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite.
- Contains large kneeling statue
- Hatshepsut created a whole anthology around her king ship that described her divine birth and the way an oracle described how she would rule.
- Was interested in the idea of art used as authority
- Representations of Hatshepsut as a sphynx which would have lined the center of the lower courtyard
- Temple is built directly against a massive cliff face
- Sense of permanence and stability evoked by the cliff face, which Hatshepsut was trying to reassert in her ruling
- Beginning of the New Kingdom, during relative chaos
- Adopts traditional forms to show herself as king: symmetry, embededness in the stone, no space between her limbs and her body, real sense of timelessness
- Head cloth associated with the king, wearing a beard
- Visual language of kingship
- There was no word for Queen in Egyptian language, so she was presented like a male rule too
- Represented in a generally masculine way, has broad shoulders and deemphasized breasts
- Inscriptions on these sculptures use a feminine form
- Once a year there was a ritual involving a sculpture of the god that was taken from the temple in Thebes to the Mortuary Temple
- His primary shrine was at the very top of the temple and he would stay there one night
- That is why we have representations of her on her knees, because Egyptian royalty only kneeled before the gods
- Commissioned many images of herself
- All about procession and pageantry
- Neo-Assyrian. c. 720-705 BCE. Alabaster.
- Assyrians controlled the ancient Near East from about 1000 BCE to around 500 BCE
- These sculptures come from the palace of Sargon the 2nd and were carved at the height of Assyrian civilization in the 8th century
- Guardian figures that protected the city
- Winged bulls with the heads of men
- Stood at gateways
- Are fearsome, look powerful
- Could have been an expression of the power of the Assyrian king
- Are enormous, but would have seem small compared to the architecture of the buildings they guarded
- Served some structural purpose
- Are actually carved out of a monolithic stone, so there are no cuts here, they are single pieces of stone
- There are relief carvings in the palace that depicted getting these sculptures into place
- Wearing crowns, decorated with rosettes, and then double horns that come around towards the top center, and on top of that, a ring of feathers
- Connected eyebrow
- Ears are the ears of a bull with extravagant earrings
- The whole form is very decorative
- Complex representation of the beard
- Wings form a decorative pattern
- Under him are inscriptions in cuneaform that proclaim the power of the king and damnation for those that would threaten the citadel
- Were meant to be seen from both a frontal view and a profile view. There are too many legs, two from the front and 4 from the side
- When you look at it from the side, it's moving forward, but when you look at it from the front, it's standing still
- As we approach, it's still, watching us
- If we can pass, the animal moves
- Relationship between the imagination and the real
- All related to the king and the fortification of the king
- Archaic Greek. c. 530 BCE. Marble with remnants of paint.
- Actual musculature
- Less formal, less "diamond torso"
- Face is more realistic, less flat
- Archaic smile
- Inscription on base asks the viewer to stop, look, and feel pity for Kroisos, who was killed on the battlefield
- This is not what Krosis looked like, this is what the ideal human looked like
- No date, it is eternal
- Much more in the round, you can walk around him
- Sculptor does not understand knees. He tries to, but the knees just aren't lifelike.
- About life size, a little bit larger
- Ideal male youth
- Thousands of these figures were produced and we just call them Kouros, which means "youth"
- Could have been used as grave markers, as spiritual offerings, and rarely, they represented a god, usually apollo
- Perhaps they were inspired by contact with Egypt
- In the early Kouros, you have a greater sense of stiffness, of abstraction of the human body, and a sense of the body in correspondence with a block of stone
- Modeling in the round
- Hard line between the torso and the legs has been softened
- Forms of the face and body are more integrated
- Both legs are locked and weight is evenly displaced between the legs
- Traditional headband and curly hair
- This was set up as a grave marker by an aristocratic family for their son who died in war
- There was usually a base with an inscription found near the spot of the figure
- Sense of potential in a life that was cut short, but at this moment of greatest strength and beauty
- Artist had to leave a little bridge between the hands and the thighs in order to strengthen the object
- Tarquinia, Italy. Etruscan. c. 480-470 BCE. Tufa and fresco.
- Shows a big party, dancers and diners on different sides. People are reclining and relaxing. Dancers are very exuberant and lively.
- Geometric roof structure: possibly mimics the tents used to dine outside
- Shows an important part of etruscan culture
- For every man on the couch, there is also a woman
- Woman are engaging in parties
- Romans would not have understood that the women had higher statuses in Etruscan culture, could have been one of the reasons they hated the Etruscans
- Funerary contexts constitute the most abundant archaeological evidence for the Etruscan civilization
- The elite members of Etruscan society participated in elaborate funerary rituals that varied and changed according to both geography and time
- The city of Tarquina was one of the most powerful and prominent Etruscan centers, known for its painted chamber tombs
- Reveals important information about Etruscan funeral culture and the society of the living
- Etruscans amassed wealth based on Italy's natural resources that they exchanged through trade
- Chamber tombs are subterranean rock-cut chambers
- The rear wall of the tomb carries the main scene, one of the banqueters enjoying a dinner party.
- Similar to scenes from Greek pottery
- On the left and right walls are scenes of dancers
- Common painterly conventions of gender typing are employed: the skin of females is light in color while male skin is tinted darker tone of orange brown
- The dancers and musicians suggest the overall convivial tone of the Etruscan funeral
- Ceiling is painted in a checkered scheme of alternating colors, perhaps meant to evoke the fabric tents that were erected near the tomb for the actual celebration of the funeral banquet
- Athens, Greece. Iktinos and Kallikrates. c. 447-410 BCE. Marble.
- Athens originated as a Neolithic akropolis
- Later it served as a fortress and a sanctuary
- As the city grew, it became the religious and ceremonial center devoted to the goddess Athena
- Athena was the city's patron and protector.
- After Persian troops destroyed it, the athenians vowed to keep it as a memorial, but Perikles convinced them to rebuild it. Argued that this project honored Athena
- Intended to create a visual expression of Athenian values and civic pride that would bolster the city's status as the capital of the empire
- Cost and labor were staggering, large quantities of materials had to be imported
- Perikles was severely criticised by his political opponents for this extravagance, but this never cost his popular support
- Many working-class Athenians benefited from his expenditures
- Visitors approached the temple from its northwest corner, instantly grasping the imposing width and depth of this building, isolated like a work of sculpture elevated on a pedestal
- Main Building = The Parthenon. Don't see it straight on, set it at an angle. You are being invited to walk around it by design. Planning and execution required extraordinary mathematical and mechanical skills. Would have been impossible without a large contingent of distinguished architects and builders, as well as talented sculptors and painters. Key to the Parthenon's sense of harmony and balance was attention to proportions, especially the ratio 4:9. It expressed the relationship of the breadth to length and the relationship of column diameter to space between columns. Also important were the subtle refinements of design: Base and entablature curve slightly upward to correct optical distortion, columns have gentle swelling and tilt inward slightly from bottom to top, corners are strengthened visibly by reducing the space between columns at those points. Refinement of seemingly regular elements give the Parthenon a buoyant, organic appearance and assure that it will not look like a heavy, lifeless stone box.
- Sculptural decoration reflects Pheidias' unifying aesthetic vision, but also conveys political and ideological themes like : Triumph of democratic city-states over Persia, Preeminence of Athens thanks to the favor of Athena, Triumph of enlightened Greek civilization over depotism and barbarism.
- The pediments: Sculpture in the round filled both pediments of the Parthenon. Using reconstructive drawing, we know that the West pediment sculpture presented the contest Athena won over the sea god Poseidon, and the East pediment portrayed the birth of Athena. Statues from the east pediment are the best preserved of the two groups.
- The Doric Frieze: The Parthenon has 2 sculptured friezes, one above the outer peristyle and another atop the cella wall inside. The Doric Frieze on the exterior has 92 metope reliefs depicting legendary battles. There is symbolized combat between two representative figures. Each of these mythic struggles represented for the Greeks the triumph of reason over unbridled animal passion.
- The Erechtheion: Temple, more complex. Not doric, ionic. Second important temple erected on the Akropolis under Pericles' building program. Asymmetrical plan reflects the building's multiple functions in housing several shrines, and also conformed to the sharply sloping terrain on which it was located. It also stands on the site of the mythical contest between the sea god Poseidon and Athena
- Temple of Athena Nike: Much smaller, refined Ionic decoration. Marked contrasted to the weighted Doric Propylaea. Temple was surrounded by a parapet or low wall faced with sculptured panels depicting Athena presiding over the preparation of a celebration by winged Nikes.
- Nike (victory) adjusting her sandal: figure bends forward gracefully. Tunic is slipping off one shoulder. Large wings balance her unstable position. Textile covering her is delicate and light, it clings to her body. Discreetly erotic. Statue is contained by a room/cella. Graceful even in an erotic position. Balanced by her large wings. Counter balancing, takes the idea of contrapposto and takes it to the extreme. Gives us a sign about the holiness of the place. Taking off her shoes on top of holy ground.
- Asia Minor (present-day Turkey). Hellenistic Greek. c. 175 BCE. Marble (architecture and sculpture).
- Built temple to show how good they were at defeating their enemies
- Snakes = one of Athena's tricks
- 2 Friezes, one with Athena in the center and one with Zeus
- Combine the Greek love of the body and the sense of expressiveness and drama
- Hellenistic = the last phase in Greek art before Europe was conquered by Alexander the great
- A battle between the giants and the gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus
- A celestial battle of enormous proportions where the giants battle the Olympian gods for supremacy of the earth and the universe
- Athena: Is beautiful and totally in control, bracketed on either side by passionate, wild figures who are being defeated, also being crowned by a winged Nike, who comes from behind with a crown
- Entire marble surface has a counterclockwise motion
- Full of diagonals which activate the surface, with deepest carvings which creates contrast between the highlights of the exposed bodies and the dark shadows behind them
- Virtuoso sculpting of the Human body
- All of this would have been brilliantly painted
- Zeus: composed and totally in control, no doubt that he is in the victor, an enormously powerful figure, has thunderbolts, an eagle, his symbol, is attacking one of the giants
- Thunderbolts represented by torches
- Set of symbols that spoke of the Greeks fear, but also optimism that they could overcome chaos
- Is a metaphor for the victory of Greek culture over the unknown
- Represents victory over cultures that they didn't understand
- Up the stairs is the most sacred part of the altar, where the fire for Zeus was lit, and where there would have been sacrifices
- Friezes pour out onto the stairs, entering our world
- Pompeii, Italy. Imperial Roman. c. second century BCE., rebuilt c. 62-79 CE. cut stone and fresco.
- Domestic spaces offer a rich resource for examining ancient lives
- Pompeii was thriving up until the moment of its destruction
- A roman townhouse located within Pompeii
- Remains constitute a nearly unparalleled resource for the study of the Roman world
- Arctiectural historians and archaeologists have been debating the form and function of ancient Roman houses for several hundred years
- Ranking aristocratic families used domestic display as a way to reinforce social position and a way to advance their own fortunes, as well as those of there dependents and clients within the community
- The standard house plan has several key architectural elements: generally entered from the street via a narrow doorway, large centralized reception hall flanked by wings and often bounded by bedrooms, office of the head of the household links the public part of the house to the private part of the house, latter area often focuses on an open courtyard and serves as the center of family life, where the kitchen, dining rooms, and often a small garden is. May houses also had a second level that may have contained additional sleeping spaces and perhaps storage.
- Construction of the house and its decorations belong to the final period of Pompeii's occupation and therefore provides important evidence of the aesthetics of the city on the eve of its destruction
- Was built atop the remains of an earlier house that survives in the form of the wings and a doorway
- Entry to the house was gained from the east by way of a vestibule that granted admission to the larger atrium
- Wall paintings: Four styles: Illusion of architectural style, paintings of nature (usually on a platform), whimsical architecture, floral designs and daintiness, and lastly, a combination of all the styles together. The decorative schema of the House provides important evidence for trends in domestic decoration in the final years of Pompeii's occupation. Overall the scheme of wall painting in the house suggests an attempt at forward-looking interior decoration on the part of the owners.
- Imperial Roman. Early first century CE. Marble
- Returning to the idea of the idealized youth
- Contraposto
- Face is recognizable, this is a specific person (Augustus)
- Barefoot, hinting at divinity
- Cupid at his feet, reminder that Augustus is of divine origin
- Toga draped over his arm, "I am the best on republican knowledge"
- Fabric falling off to reveal armor that represents how all of the world is under the control of Roman power, and everyone is under the Pax Romana
- Powerful piece of propaganda
- Probably a copy of a bronze that was stored in a public place, many copies made
- No photographs, so his likeness was distributed through sculpture
- Wanted people to see him Godlike and powerful
- Image is the identity he wants to portray, Godlike, youth, athletic, ideal
- Used canon proportions, saying he wants to create a golden age like the golden age of Greece
- Cupid was supposedly his little brother
- At first glance this statue might appear to simple resemble a portrait of Augustus as an orator and general, but this sculpture also communicates a good deal about the emperor's power and ideology
- Shows himself as a great military victor and a staunch supporter of Roman religion
- Fortells the 200 year period of peace that Augustus initiated called the Pax Romana
- Right arm is outstretched, demonstrating that the emperor is addressing his troops
- Immediately sense the emperor's power as the leader of the army and a military conqueror
- Breastplate: covered with figures that communicate additional propagandistic messages: Augustus has the gods on his side, he is an international military victor, and he is the bringer of the Pax Romana
- Not simply a portrait of the emperor, it expresses Augustus' connection to the past, his role as a military victor, his connection to the gods, and his role as the bringer of the Roman Peace.
- Rome, Italy. Imperial Roman. 70-80 CE. Stone and concrete.
- On the inside is the arena, floor is made of sand so that it would aborb the blood and bodily fluids of the fighters, like a gigantic cat litter
- Nicknamed the colosseum because it was located next to a colossal statue, originally of Nero,
- The original name of the building was the Flavian Amphitheater, the family that commissioned the building
- Amphitheater is just a technical name for its shape, it simple means a double theater
- Built in only 10 years
- Could hold between 50,000 and 80,000 people
- Like a modern stadium, would have had assigned seats, and then the arches have the numbers inscribed on them in roman numerals
- Seats were assigned according to status, most important people were seated the closest and the lowest, and the least important people, the women, would be seated up high
- 3 stories of arches, and then another story, a fourth flour, with windows
- Arches are framed by columns
- Bottom part is Tuscanic, similar to Doric, but a more local, Italian style. Have a base, not fluted.
- Ionic columns on the second story. Considered to be the most feminine of the columns. Proportions are more slender, with volutes on the top.
- Top floor is the corintian, and they are based on the acanthus plant.
- Inside each of these arches on the second and third floor, there would have been a statue
- The romans had perfected concrete, and were the first to use it as a real structural material. Critical for their ability to create structures of this size. It did not require specialized workers and it was less expensive and could be assembled anywhere, was more elastic and because it was liquid you could mold it anyway you wanted it. Really allowed for far more monumental structures.
- Early Byzantine Europe. Early 6th century CE. Illuminated manuscript. (Tempera, gold, and silver on purple vellum).
- Manuscript of the first book of the bible
- Earliest narrative illustrations of bible stories
- Codex: A book. A huge technological advancement, better than a scroll because the pages have to be bound, it is more durable, it can last longer, be easily transported, can use richer color, and won't bend like a scroll
- Parchment: What the page is made of. Animal skin
- Vellum: More precious than parchment, thinner animal skin, usually from a calf. Takes a lot of work for it to be scratched down to be thin enough to wright on.
- Miniature: A smaller decoration on a page
- Illumination: The colored illustration
- Scriptonium: Where this was made, took a lot of work
- Purple color: dyed. Very expensive, thought to have been used by a royal family or an aristocrat. Painted with tempera, an egg based medium.
- Highlights of gold and silver. Black writing used to be shiny silver, especially beautiful to see at night.
- Caught between two artistic value systems, classical and baroque
- Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well: Story from Genesis 24. Picture is how Rebecca came to Mary and Jacob. Abraham wanted to find a wide for his son Isaac and sent his servant Eliezer to find one from among Abraham's extended family. Eliezer took 10 of Abraham's camels with him and stopped at the well to give them water. Eliezer prayed to God that Isaac's future wife would asist him with watering his camels. Rebecca arrives and helps him, and Eliezer knows she is the wife for Isaac. The story is about God intervening to ensure a sound marriage for Abraham's son. We see this in a continuous narrative. Rebecca with a water jug, then going to the stream
- Water nymph: Using pagan language to personify stream. Artist takes the vocabulary of ancient Greece to portray the bible.
- Realism of pose: Something drawn from Roman pictoral vocabulary.
- Narrative being told like a scroll, even though it is a codex. Like the column at Trajan's forum. We already known how to read it just by looking at it.
- All of the text was written by hand
- Jacob wrestling the Angel: Jacob wakes up and leads his family across the river. After they cross the river, Jacob becomes separated from his family and he meets a man, whom he wrestles and wants the man/angel to bless him. So the angel blesses him and the family goes on their way. It's an important transformation, because after Jacob is blessed, his name changes to Israel. Artist tries to find a way to stretch this very linear narrative and make it fit the space of the book. References to the classical, similar to a frieze, one of his wives wears a draping that clings to her body, and the architecture of the bridge recalls the classical. Sense of perspective is quite skewed, mixing up of space is very typical of this time.
- Ravenna, Italy. Early Byzantine Europe. Brick, marble, and stone veneer; mosaic.
- Unusual in its central plan, not longitudinal axis plan. Started by ostrogoths, but finished by Justinian.
- Instead of a long axis it has an ambulatory, or an isle that surrounds its central space
- Also an extension with an apse on the end
- Octagon with a smaller octagon inside of it that rises higher
- Martinium: a church built over a grave of a martyr, martyrs have power because they died the same way Jesus did
- Exterior buttress: force goes to the side
- Justinian mosaic: the authority of the emperor in the Christian plan of history. Can also be seen to give visual testament to the two major ambitions of Justinian's reign: as heir to the tradition of Roman emperors, Justinian sought to restore the territorial boundaries of the Empire. As the Christian emperor, he saw himself as the defender of the faith.
- Lots of windows = beautiful mosaics
- Massive piers that help support the building
- Columns are doubled, stacking one set of columns above the next, classical orders have been left behind. The early Christians are trying to invent a new iconography for their architecture.
- Eastern end is completely covered in Mosaic: Christ sits on an orb of the universe in the center dressed royalty in purple, below are the 4 rivers of paradise, on either side of him is an angel
- Justin and Theodora never actually came here, they're in the mosaic to reassert their control over the city.
- Reassertion of Eastern European control
- Spiritual power goes hand in hand with political power
- Three centers of power: the church, the emperor, and the military
- Justinian is divine: There is a halo around his head
- No concern for proportions, figures seem to float in a heavenly realm, very byzantine art
- Constantine (Istanbul). Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. 532-537 CE. Brick and ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer.
- Justinian: high bond between the church and state. Unification. Emperor seen as the head of the church (in the East)
- Niqua revolt: Underlinks revolt under Justinian, he wanted to quit but Theodora encouraged him to keep fighting, and because he keeps fighting, establishes an even stronger empire, and commissions the Hagia Sophia
- Largest enclosed space ever built
- Built by geometrists and mathemeticians, not architects.
- All materials were imported. Precious things collected from all over. Millions of tiles made up the mosaic.
- Dome: "suspended from a golden chain from heaven" Spiritual aura. Exists more in heaven than on earth
- Technology: Windows, dome on pendentives. The room can be bigger than the base of the dome, can have windows that are not structural.
- Liturgy in the Hagia Sophia: Central plan, also a lingitudinal axis, combination of 2 styles.
- Sanctuary: Holy place where only priests can go. Where the Eucharists happens, behind the sanctuary. Separated by a screen, so you can't see it being done. Only priests can perform this action.
- Women are upstairs one level, emperor is the only person who can be a part of the holy actions. Heavenly court mirrors Earthly court
- Full of relics, supposedly the olive branch from Noah, pieces of the cross
- Islamic plates = Roundheels. Placed after it was converted to a Mosque. Names of the Caliphs.
- Arabic script from the Quaran on the roof of the dome. Mix of 2 styles, Islam and Christianity. Currently a state museum.
- The Hagia Sophia survived because it was converted.
- Columns: Basically a classical shape, looks like an ionic column created with Christian vocabulary. Taking the old and making it new. Capital has been deconstructed. It's airy, ethereal, and delicate, even though it supports a lot of weight.
- Mosaics were covered up during conversion.
- Muslim depictions of Jesus as a prophet.
- Calligraphy = critical to Islam
- Mihrab (niche that points towards islam) is off center: Oriented in the wrong direction because the church didn't orient towards mecca.
- Pencil minarets and dome: essentials of islamic architecture. Purpose: Big place to call people to pray, defines the skyline, clear distinguishing feature.
- Structure expresses values and beliefs
- Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon) Europe. c. 700 CE. Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum).
- Incipit: It begins.
- We know that these people know about Islam because the book starts out with the idea that the carpet is the ideal location for prayer, a concept borrowed from Islam.
- Latin script: insular majuscule (large lettering, either capital or uncial, in which all the letters are usually the same height). Underneath, a different type of letter: a monk glossed it in english
- First Gospel translation to English
- Combination of languages and cultures to make this up
- Matthew Cross Carpet Page: series of repetitive knots and spirals dominated by a centrally-located cross. Knots reveal themselves as snake-like cultures curling and in and around tubular forms. Intricate and detailed.
- Luke's Incipit: teems with animal life, spiraled forms, and swirling vortexes. Knots reveal to be snakes that move in the letters boundaries, birds, marked in contrast to his straight forward portrait page
- Luke's portrait page: Sitting on a stool, holding a feather, poised to write words on a scroll, feet are hovering above the ground. Gold halo indicates divinity. Blue winged calf, symbolic of Christ's sacrifice on the cross.
- Materials came from as far away as from Islam too
- Artists would have had to have been like chemists to know how to make the colors
- Book itself was considered holy
- Artistic expression and inspired execution make it a high point of early medieval art
- Córdoba, Spain. Umayyad. Begun c. 785-786 CE. Stone masonry.
- One of the oldest structures still standing from the time Muslims ruled
- Believed that there had first been a temple to the Roman god, Janus, on this site.
- Temple was converted into a church by invading Visigoths
- Next the church was converted into a mosque and completely rebuilt
- Stands on ground considered sacred by 3 different religions
- Because it served so many spiritual purposes, it is disputed for what it should be called
- Currently functions as a church
- Cordoba = center of Umayyad rule
- Trees of paradise mosaic: evidence of Byzantine mosaicists workers who helped build it
- Gardens are very important to Muslims, seen as paradise
- Marble columns and capitals in the hypostyle prayer hall were recycled from the ruins of classical buildings in the region, which had been a wealthy roman province (spoila)
- Geometrical illusion, gives more support, elevation, and light
- Horse shoe shaped arches = enjoyed by the visigoths and borrowed from Roman and Byzantine
- Hypostyle prayer hall: magnified by repeated geometry, built with recycled ancient Roman columns from which sprout a striking combination of symmetrical arches, formed of stone and red brick.
- Mihrab: The focal point in the prayer hall, shaped like a horse shoe, framed by an exquisitely decorated arch behind which is an unusually large space
- The dome: Above the Mihrab. Built of crisscrossing ribs that create pointed arches covered in gold mosaic. Anticipates later Gothic rib vaulting
- Prime example of the Muslim world's ability to develop architectural styles based on pre-existing regional tradition
- Combination of familiar and innovative
- Conques, France. Romanesque Europe. Church: c. 1050-1130 CE: Reliquary of Saint Foy: ninth century CE with later additions. Stone (architecture) stone and paint (tympanum); gold, silver, gemstones, and enamel over wood (reliquary).
- Sainte Foy: Christian Martyr, refused to worship Pagan Gods so she was tortured and killed
- Church was founded in 819 by a Hermit Monk, in the same year that St. Jane's reliquaries were discovered in Conquestella. All of a sudden, people started to take these pilgrimages to conquestella.
- No relics = no benefits
- So a Sainte-Foy monk goes to live with the rival monastery and stays there 10 years, earning their trust, and then steals the relics and brings them to the church of St. Foy. "Holy Theft." Claimed that Sainte-Foy had wanted to move
- The pilgrimage route changed and Sainte-Foy was saved
- Rebuilt to accommodate Pilgrims
- Main feature of church was a cruciform plan, took the symbolic form of the cross and helped control the crowds of pilgrims. Apse contained smaller chapels, known as radiating chapels, where pilgrims could visit the saint's shrines. They could then circulate around the ambulatory and out the transept.
- They Tympanum of the Last Judgement: Semi-circular relief carving above the central portal. In the center Christ is the judge. Scene serves as a reminder to those entering the Church about the joys of heaven and torments of hell. Can see a clear division between a large doorway leading to paradise and a terrifying mouth that leads the way to hell. Specific people depicted on the heaven side: Mary, Hermit who founded the Abby, and Charlemange. St. Foy prays and God's hands descend to her, she's praying downwards, towards the people. Gargoyles peep out from the border and hold the scene up.
- Reliquary: covered in gold leaf and silver gilt, encrusted with stuff. As the monastery became richer, people would provide the relic with jewels. Head is too big for its body: modeled after Roman face-mask parade helmets. Wearing a crown: Martyrs are crowned with heaven, kind of like a soldier, fought and died for the faith. Spoila.
- Provides an example of Romanesque art and architecture
- Romanesque Europe (English or Norman). c. 1066-1080 CE. Embroidery on linen.
- Embroidery, not actually a tapestry. One of the very few pieces of art we have from this time we have that is not religious.
- Depicts 75 scenes with Latin inscriptions
- Commissioned by Bishop Odo, William's half brother, to commemorate recent events
- The story: England, 1066, Harold is crowned king despite his oath to William, a comet is seen as an omen, Harold sends a messenger to France, William is furious at Harold's betrayal, William orders invasion fleet to be built, weapons and supplies are carried onto the ships, the Norman invasion sails across the channel, william's army lands near hastings, the normans set up camp, william's cooks set up a banquet in his honor, a motte and bailey castle are built for defense, a house is burnt down to make way for the army, william preps for battle, the army advances, the normans outflank the saxons, harold's brother is slain, saxons and normons fall together in the raging battle, william rallies his troops for a final charge, king harold is killed, the normans are victorious, William is made the king.
- Odo commissioned it, so he looks good
- Makes a big deal about the strength of the horses
- Presents a rich representation of a particular historic moment as well as providing an important visual source for 11th century textiles
- Provides an excellent example of Anglo-Norman art
- Serves as a medieval artifact that operates as art, chronicle, political propaganda, and visual evidence of 11th century mundane objects.
- Chartres, France. Gothic Europe. Original construction c. 1145-1155 CE. Reconstructed c. 1194-1220 CE. Limestone, stained glass.
- Early Gothic west works is all that remains after 1194 fire, rest of the cathedral is high gothic
- All buildings are oriented towards the east
- Cruciform: Fire destroyed most of it and had to rebuild
- Cult of Mary grows stronger during the middle ages, Mary = a mediator between us and her son Jesus. Rose windows = associated with Mary
- Mary's crucial relic = the veil which she wore when she gave birth
- Mary became so important that she almost had divine powers. Catholics venerate her, but the do not worship her. Reformers didn't like the idea of Mary worship, saw Jesus as the one Mediator
- Relic was in the crypt during the fire but survived
- Holy reasons to reconstruct, but also political and economic reasons, as well as intellectual. Cathedral = power. People wanted to put their towns on the map.
- Textile market happened outside: Economic center
- Triforium, little rows of windows, made possible by the flying buttresses on the ouside
- Evolution of the Gothic Cathedral: Can get rid of the tribune gallery
- Flying Buttress: Enables increased height of nave, more light, Chartres was the first Cathedral to incorporate them
- Stained glass: Used a full scale drawing as a model, made sheets of colored glass, chipped at the glass until required shape was achieved, can overlap 2 different colors to make other colors, eventually corrected to stone. Can paint on smaller details such as small facial features.
- Padua, Italy. Unknown architect; Giotto di Bondone (artist). Chapel: c. 1303 CE; Fresco: c. 1305. Brick (architecture) and fresco.
- Called the arena chapel because it was built next to a roman amphitheater
- Called the Scrovengi chapel because the Scrovegni people engaged in usury and made and dedicated this chapel as an apology, ironic that they way they atoned for their sins of wealth was by using dead wealth to make a church
- Program of the church: in registers that wrap around, start out with the marriage of Mary and goes to the Birth of Jesus
- Giotto didn't design the building, but he worked with what was already there
- The marriage of Mary's parents: Using the bridge to try and show the relationship between people and architecture, unusual for byzantine art. Everyone is watching and having their own personal responses
- Presentation of the temple: Experiment with perspective and depth, blue background, not gold, huge difference, all of a sudden, divinity scenes are happening in the world of the viewer, invented the idea of the nativity scene: inventing a scene and being a part of it
- Lamentation: Most important, change in the depiction of Mary, each person is having an individual reaction, both figures sitting and the slope of the mountain draw our eye to Mary and Jesus. Focal center of the picture is not the literal center of the picture. Shows us people living in real space. All people with mass, solid bodies. Lighting isn't totally consistent, but its not the divine light, it's real light coming from the sun. Use the shading to show the depth and massiveness of the body
- Workshop of Robert Campin. 1427-1432 CE. Oil on wood.
- New found prosperity, increasing interest in commissioning paintings as aids in prayer for people to use in their home
- Designed for private patrons in their private chapel
- Portable
- Patrons are pictured in the actual work, shown kneeling on the left, a typical position
- Garden refers to Mary's virginity
- Enunciation scene looks like it's taking place in a living room of this area of Northern Europe in the 1400s
- Seeing biblical figures in a modern context in order to make prayer more profound and make the viewer feel closer to God
- Less focus on linear perspective: table and floor are off, seems too deep, seems like the floor is rising, very cramped
- Oil = luminous, has the appearance that it's glowing, can use different layers, richer in texture and feel, can paint over it many times so other layers could shine through, multi textural. Allows for light and texture.
- Symbolism: Room on the right- Joseph? or Campin's dedication to his craft. Building a mousetrap, mouse = the devil, trap = possible symbol of the cross. Vibrant red garment worn by mary: her sitting pose does not make rational sense, shadows and highlights: jesus is coming to Mary, divine light is coming down to Mary, light makes a star shape. Lily = symbol of Mary. Towel = Jewish prayer shawl, symbol of fulfillment of the Jewish law. Pages of the book are fluttering = power of the word is coming alive. Candle has gone out = Mary has been taken by surprise. Nails = what jesus was nailed to the cross with. Pot = representation of Mary's sinlessness
- Northern renaissance = incredibly detailed
- Filed with many details to maintain interest because it would have been viewed so many times
- Everything in the painting has a purpose and a meaning, but much of it is lost
- Even as this painting is celebrating the coming of Christ, it also foreshadows to Christ's death
- Donatello. c. 1440-1460 CE. Bronze.
- Sculpture for Cosimo de Medici, placed in the center of Medici Palace, 7 balls symbolize the Medicis
- Inscription engraved in base suggests that it was dedicated in celebration of the Florentine triumph over Milanese in 1425
- First life-size free standing nude since classical antiquity
- Classical heroic nudity
- Prepubescent boy in laurel-trimmed shepherd's hat and boots
- Hat: jaunty and fashionable for a male youth
- Older men initiated sex by stealing adolescent boy's hats
- Symbol of fashion, adolescent beauty and sexual availibility
- David's hat is ON, he has the control over his sex life
- Viewer desires this beautiful boy yet he has the power over us and he's victorious over older man, Goliath
- Homoeroticism: sensuous, effeminate wig from Goliath's helmet and severed head stroking inner thigh
- David's angular pose and boyish torso: poised between childish interests and adult responsibility and maturity, improbable heroism
- David was a potent political image in Florence, symbolized citizen's resolve to oppose tyrants regardless of their power
- Anatomy: Donatello figured it out intuitively, later on (da Vinchi) would do dissections to learn how the body works. Donatello does not understand how pectoral bones and ribs are connected
- Impressive shoulder blade accuracy
- Hands are too big, adolescent transition, adjusting and moving into manhood
- Victory brings a resolution to struggle with depots and deemed Florence a strong, Independent republic.
- Leonardo da Vinci. c. 1494-1498 CE. Oil and tempera.
- Several times a day monks would eat and look up at this painting, ideal place for this
- Painting is often read as a reaction to the moment that Jesus tells the table that one of them will betray him
- Set of reactions from apostles from around the table
- Christ is reaching towards both a glass of wine and a loaf of bread, and this is the institution of the sacrament, when Christ says that the bread is his body, take this wine, it is my blood
- Judas is the one who will betray Christ, and he's been paid 30 silver coins, and he's holding the silver coins in his right hand
- tells several moments in this story while still giving us a sense of its divinity without any obvious symbols of the divine
- Figures are monumental and too big for the table, creating energy that surrounds the perfection, the solemnity of Christ
- Christ forms a triangle, the window behind him reads as a table, he's the calm center
- Artist is thinking about the integration of maths and sciences
- Leonardo simplifies everything and focuses us on those figures and their gestures
- Separates our world from the world of Christ and the apostles, space is so full that there's no way for us to enter or for them to leave, table is a barrier between the two worlds
- The eternal and ideal united with human psychological complexity and dramatic action
- Leonardo mastered the complexity of expression, people are engaged with eachother, completely phycological
- Formal elements of perspective
- Each are individualized, but they're all in groups
- Vatican City, Italy. Michelangelo. Ceiling frescoes: c. 1508-1512 CE; altar frescoes: c. 1536-1541 CE. Fresco.
- Ceiling: Replaced a blue ceiling with stars, originally the pope wanted a geometric ornament with the 12 apostles in spandrels around the decoration but Michelangelo proposed to paint the Old Testament instead. Narrative begins at the altar and is divided into 3 sections, the creation of the heavens and earth, the creation of adam and eve, the expulsion from the garden, and then the story of noah and the great flood. In 1510 Michelangelo took a year long break and the frescoes painted after his break are characteristically different from the ones he painted before and are emblematic of what we envision the sistine chapel painting, where the narratives have been pared down to only essential figures depicted on a monumental scale. Because of these changes, Michelangelo is able to convey a strong sense of emotionality that can be percieved from the floor of the chapel.
- The Last Judgement: On the altar wall, from the new testament. christ is on the top center, below christ is the separation of the blessed and the damned. Dramatic and powerful, this is the end of time. Christ is the judge and he seems to be smiting the damned. Mary turns to the blessed, she is no longer able to intercede with humanity. On the right, angels lift the blessed up from their graves and seem to assist them to get to heaven. Bodies are very dense and muscular. Angels are clearly male and powerful. Their heads are too small for their bodies. We feel the struggle and the difficulty of saving those souls and bringing them to heaven. Figures on the damned side are even more intentionally heavy and gruesome, there are devils everywhere. Even Christ's body is off- Michelangelo is looking at the body for symbolic meaning, is willing to distort the body for the power of the painting itself. The body is in the service of the religious message. Fresco is SO pessimistic. The skin that St. Bartholomew holds is actually a self portrait of Michelangelo himself, and he's right in the middle between christ and the damned. Expresses the concern Michelangelo had for his own soul.
- Lucas Cranach the Elder. c. 1530 CE. Woodcut and letterpress.
- Single most influential image of the Lutheran Reformation, ignited by Martin Luther that quickly became a rebellion as people began to question the power and practices of the Catholic Church
- In consultation with Martin Luther, Lucas Cranach the Elder produced this.
- All of his painting rests upon pictorial type, which influenced other artists
- Explain's Luther's ideas in visual form, most basically the notion that heaven is reached through faith and God's grace. Luther despised and rejected the Catholic idea that good deeds could play any role in salvation
- 2 nude male figures appear on either side of a tree that is green and living on the "gospel" side on the right, but barren and dying on the "law" side to the viewer's left. Six columns of Bible citations appear at the bottom of the panel.
- On the gospel side, John the Baptist directs a naked man to Christ, the nude figure is not vainly hoping to follow the law or to present a tally of his good deeds on the judgement day, he just submits to God's mercy
- Law side: Motifs are meant to exemplify the idea that law alone without Gospel can never get you into heaven. Literally highlights the association of law, death, and damnation. Together, these motifs demonstrate that law leads inescapably to hell when mistaken for a path to salvation.
- Concerned with 2 roles that God plays: to judge and to show mercy
- Luther's idea of law is multifaceted, and bears a complex relationship to his idea of gospel. Though a law alone will never make salvation possible, it remains indispensable as the way the believer recognizes sin and the need for grace.
- Is Lutheran because it represents Cranach's pictoral translation of Luther's unique understanding of salvation.
- Interprets the roles of law, good works, faith, and grace in the human relationship to God.
- Viceroyalty of New Spain. c. 1541-1542 CE. Ink and color on paper.
- Codex = book bound together at the end
- Recording of Aztec life before colonization
- Frontispiece = First piece of the book
- Middle is the eagle on top of the pear cactus, shield representing the Aztec people
- Supposed to be a representation of the moment they find the place to have their city
- Also depicts an old fashioned city, a mesh of culture
- The men in top knots are rulers, the cactuses next to them are pictographs with their names
- Soldiers at the bottom are in heirarchical scale. Shield appears again, shows it was not an easy transition to get to their new home. Pictures of conquered city states in the background
- Skull in the rack = representation of human sacrifice
- So many layers of history being shown here
- Memory of the founding of the city based on the founding of previous cities
- Commissioned by the Spanish but the Aztec artists are making this. Wanted to show aztec life annotated in Spanish. Was sending it to Spain but it was intercepted by French pirates. Shows that it very early on in Spanish conquest. Remnants of Aztec civilization are still very alive in the minds of the people. Not in the art form that local Aztecs would make, Spanish are directing the creation. Wanted to show the people of the old world life in the new world
- Part of what they are showing is how barbaric these people are
- The X represents the canals
- Squares around the boarder have a calendar function, divided into years and eras. Represent important years with pictographs
- Rome, Italy. Giacomo da Vignola, plan (architect); Giacomo della porta, facade (architect); Giovanni Battista Gaulli, ceiling fresco (artists). Church: 18th century CE; facade: 1568-1584 CE, fresco and stucco figures: 1676-1679 CE. Brick, marble, fresco, and stucco.
- The home church of the Jesuits
- Classical vocabulary: Pilasters, engaged columns
- Scroll volumes
- In some ways, it moves away from the Renaissance, because it has a very shallow surface in comparison to vacuous surfaces seen before.
- Pediments are biggest on top
- Very imposing, but seems decorative
- Doesn't seem to be rational
- Some of the pediments are not supported by columns
- Interior is even weirder
- Interior: Design is aimed to further the goals of the reformation. Altar looks very renaissance, but the interior is not renaissance at all. Gaudy, all of the sense must be engaged.
- Plan: still has aisles, but the aisles are trivial
- Crammed right in the middle of other buildings, right in the middle of the city, unlike gothic churches, which are the sole center of their town
- Facade is all that matters
- Ceiling of the nave: "From bottom up." Central light is supposed to be in the name of Jesus. IHS = the monogram of Jesus, also became the symbol of the Jesuits. Illusion is that the top of the church has been blown off and you literally have access to heaven, like a sky light. You can ascend to heaven. All of the figures are radically foreshortened. Looks like you're looking up at them as they are coming and going. Painted shadows on the architecture to make it even more realistic, all about theatrical illusion. Shows the saved going to heaven and the damned getting kicked out. The artist used the technology that was emerging in the world of theater. Strong correlation between these techniques and stage scenic techniques of the time period. Shows the richness of religion and catholicism. Something glorious about the faith and about being Catholic, something emotionally rich. You can participate in this richness.
- Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Islamic. Pre-Islamic monument; rededicated by Muhammad in 631-632 CE; multiple renovations. Granite masonry, covered with silk curtain and calligraphy in gold and silver-wrapped thread
- Mohammad rededicated it, purged it of its pagan/polytheistic past
- According to Islamic tradition, this was built by Abraham, built with a divine plan as an empty shrine to show that God can't be rendered in images
- No description of it in the Qur'an, idea is watered down and corrupted
- Non muslims are forbidden, it is a holy state. Before entering the sacred area, pilgrims must enter a state of natural unity, or irham
- Not art from a Muslim point of view!
- The symbolic center of the islamic world, the most sacred Muslim shrine, the place which all Muslim prayer is directed and the destination of Islam's obligatory pilgrimage, the Hajj
- According to tradition, this cube shaped building, draped in black cloth embroidered with a band of sacred verses in gold and silver thread, was originally built as a replica of a heavenly prototype
- The Kaba was a sanctuary in pre-islamic times
- Muslims believe that Abraham and his son, Ismael, constructed the Kaaba
- Tradition holds that it was originally a simple, unroofed, rectangular structure
- Interior is a simple, three pilars
- Mohammad's act of emptying the Kaaba of its pagan idols insinuated the practice of a widely figural imagery in Islamic religious architecture
- Islamic art reveals in surface decoration, manipulating line, color, and pattern
- The pilgrimage is one of the five pillars of Islam
- Jerusalem. Islamic, Umayyad. 691-692 CE, with multiple renovations. Stone masonry and wooden roof decorations with glazed ceramic tile, mosaics, and gilt aluminum and bronze dome
- The earliest Islamic sanctuary
- Seen as a sanctuary for 3 religions. Jews and Christians associate this location with solomon's temple, the site of the creation of Adam, and the place where Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac at the command of God. For Muslims this is the site of Muhammad's journey to jerusalem and ascent to heaven
- Not a mosque, a place of pilgrimage, but not a mosque
- Combination of Earth and Heaven
- The building which was inspired by round christian martyna
- A centrally placed octagon
- A stylistic synthesis of Byzantine, Persian, and other Middle Eastern forms
- Structurally, the Dome on the Rock imitates the centrally planned form of Early Christian and Byzantine Martyria.
- The Dome surrounds an octagonal drum pierced with windows supported by alternating piers and columns
- Christian church = outside doens't matter, Dome on the rock = outside DOES matter
- Asserts religious and political power
- Suggests that muslim power has finally come and the religion is established
- Holy site, and a muslim building is in the center
- Arabesque = "In the arab style"
- Tessellation = "The tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no overlaps and no gaps." uses the structure to distract the mind from the infrastructure
- The rock according to Islamic tradition is identified with the pace that Muhammad began his miraculous journey to heaven by the Angel Gabriel
- The foundation stone and its surroundings is the holiest site in Judaism
- It is enclosed with an intricately curved wooden screen
- The dome of the rock was built by Syrian artisans trained in the Byzantine tradition, its centralized plan, octagons within octagons, derived from both Byzantine and early Christian art
- Inscriptions from the Qur'an intersected with passages from other texts, including info about the building, form a frieze around the inner wall
- Above the inscription frieze is another mosaic frieze depicting scrolls and trees in turquoise
- Aniconism is not in the Qur'an, but it is in muslim tradition.