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RELI 110 Final Exam

Terms in this set (39)

North Jerusalem
Herodian Period (40 BC - 70 AD)
Josephus tells us that by the time Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD, the city had expanded past the First Wall, with the suburbs to the north being enclosed by two successive fortification walls, called the Second and Third Walls. Josephus tells us that the Third Wall was begun by Herod Agrippa I and completed on the eve of the First Jewish Revolt, which leads us to believe that the second wall was build by Herod. There is controversy over the paths of the Second and Third Walls, with two main schools of thought. The landmarks described by Josephus disappeared long ago and their exact locations are unknown, although he did describe the Third Wall as enclosing a much greater area than the Second Wall. Minimalists believe that the Third Wall is the same line marked by the north wall of the Old City today, whereas the maximalists place the Third Wall to the north of the Old City. The maximalists identify the Third Wall with the remains of a fortification wall (sometimes called the Meyer-Sukenik line) that was discovered about 1300 feet north of the Old City. It was built with Herodian stones, making it a good candidate for the Third Wall. The minimalists don't have a convincing explanation for the Meyer-Sukenik line if it is not the Third Wall. Some believe that it could be a fourth wall, but there is no mention of one by Josephus. Others think it might be a circumvallation wall built by Titus when he besieged Jerusalem in 70 AD, despite that the towers project to the north rather than the south toward the city. Although the Meyer-Sukenik line might be the Third Wall, Dr. Magness believes that it was likely built or rebuilt by Hadrian when he founded Aelia Capitolina.
Caesarea Maritima
Herodian Period (40 BC - 70 AD)
Caesarea Maritima was originally a city called Straton's Tower that was first built during the Persian Period. Herod gained control of the city through Octavian, and he turned it into a Greco-Roman city, or polis, naming it Caesarea after Octavian (Augustus Caesar). The city has two parts, the harbor and the city itself. The artificial harbor consisted of a larger outer harbor and a smaller, more sheltered, inner harbor. It was created by building two breakwaters extending out into the sea. The breakwaters protected boats from the rough waters. They also created a barrier against the prevailing currents, which come up from the south and bring silt from the Nile Delta. Because of this, the south breakwater is much longer (ca. 2000 ft) than the northern one (ca. 800 ft). The "entrance" through the breakwaters was from the northwest. Even though the southern breakwater blocked a majority of the silt from the Nile Delta, silting was still a constant problem. The only way it was kept at bay in antiquity was the repeated dredging of the harbor. Underwater excavations at Caesarea have indicated that the breakwaters were constructed using the latest innovation in Roman concrete technology. Herod imported hydraulic concrete from Italy, which contained a special type of volcanic ash that allowed the concrete mixture to harden underwater. In order to make the breakwaters, Herod's engineers constructed enormous wooden boxes or formworks, which were then towed out into the open sea. The concrete mixture was poured into the formworks, causing them to sink to the sea floor, where the concrete hardened. A series of buildings was built on top of the breakwaters, including horrea, warehouses to store the goods brought in and out of the harbor. Towers at the ends of the breakwaters marked the entrance to the harbor. One of them was a lighthouse that Herod modeled after the Pharos of Alexandria, which is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, and that he named Drusion in honor of Augustus' stepson Drusus. Towering over the harbor, Herod built a temple dedicated to Roma (goddess of the city of Rome) and Augusts, once again to demonstrating his loyalty to the emperor and empire as a whole. He also built a palace that was spectacularly situated on a natural promontory jutting out into the sea to the south of the harbor. Also located in Caesarea is a theater that was found to have a face down stone with a Latin inscription of Pontius Pilate dedicating the Temple of Tiberius. Farther inland, we can still see the outline and some remains of the hippodrome, an elongated racecourse that held chariot races.

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