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52 terms

The Gilded Age - Ch. 4 Test

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graft
acquisition of money or power in dishonest or questionable ways while in public office.
political machine
party organization in big cities that holds power by controlling votes, courts and police.
kickback
payback of a sum received from increased fees because of a confidential agreement or act of coercion.
ward
division of a city for representatives, electoral or administrative purposes.
lobbyist
person who promotes or secures the passage of legislation by influencing public officials.
patronage
the practice of elected officials to make appointments to unelected government positions for political advantage or repayment of favors.
rider
unrelated amendment attached to a bill under legislative consideration.
free trader
one that practices or advocates trade without taxes or tariffs.
protectionist
one who advocates government protection for domestic producers and manufacturer through restriction on imports.
antebellum
customs, manners and institutions that existed before the Civil War.
realism
European-influenced literary movement that strove for accurate representation of nature or real life without idealization.
expatriate
person who leaves his or her native country to live somewhere else.
yellow journalism
type of newspaper reporting in the late 1890's that featured sensational headlines and stories.
Tweed Ring
The most notorious political machine.
Thomas Nast
political cartoonist who ridiculed Tweed in his cartoons.
James Fisk and Jay Gould
reaped millions of dollars from their relationship with President Grant.
Abraham Lincoln
"Patron Saint" of the Republican party.
"Waving the Bloody Shirt"
what critics of Republicans running for office were accused of when they would bring up issues from the Civil War.
"The Solid South"
term meaning the South's loyalty to the Democratic party after the Civil War.
Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson
"patron saints" of the Democratic party.
Claimed they represented ordinary Americans
Democrats
"The government governs best which governs least."
motto of the Democratic party
Shaking Down Process
forced federal workers to make campaign contributions.
stalwarts
a group of Republican machine politicians who strongly opposed civil service reform.
People that wanted to oust Hayes and nominate Grant for a third term
stalwarts
halfbreeds
Republicans who opposed Grant.
partisan
agreed upon by both parties.
James G. Blaine
Republican nominee in 1884, talented man with a bad reputation.
Grover Cleveland
Democratic nominee in 1884, good reputation, but had fathered an illegitimate son. Had been the mayor of Buffalo and the governor of New York.
mugwumps
reformers of the Republican party who did not support Blaine but instead supported Democrat Grover Cleveland.
Grover Cleveland
narrowly won the 1884 election, becoming the first Democratic president since 1856.
Grover Cleveland
first Democratic president elected after the Civil War.
Presidential Succession Act
established a line to take the presidency in the event of the death of the vice president.
protectionists
believed that tariffs were necessary to nurture growing industries in the U.S.
tariffs
kept wages high by shielding them from cheap foreign labor.
tariff
major issue in the presidential election of 1888.
Grover Cleveland and Benjamin Harrison
presidential nominees in the election of 1888.
This party campaigned on protective tariffs in 1888.
Republicans
This party campaigned on unnecessary taxes.
Democrats
Benjamin Harrison
won the 1988 presidential election by winning the electoral college,but losing the popular vote.
McKinley Tariff of 1890
highest in the country's history. Dried up revenue by levying rates so high that some foreign products were kept entirely out of the country.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
authorized the government to buy up 4.5 million ounces of silver a month.
James B. Weaver
in 1892, ran as the candidate for the People's Party, also known as the Populist Party.
elective system
made it possible for students to choose an individual course of study.
MIT
supplied industry with highly trained engineers, metallurgists and chemists.
Morrill Act of 1862
gave public lands to each state as a grant to finance the endowment of colleges.
local color writing
popular style of post-war writing that looked to the pst, attempting to capture the romance of vanishing rural traditions.
Currier and Ives
New York lithographers who produced inexpensive paintings.
Penny Newspaper
strove to amuse readers as much as to inform them.
Joseph Pulitzer
purchased the New York World, the pioneer among newspapers.
dime novels
especially of interest to boys. These were adventure stories where heroes fought cattle rustlers and also portrayed the worlds of business and crime.
Cincinatti Red Stockings
first professional baseball team