AP Human Geography: Urbanization/ Urban Morphology
Terms in this set (65)
a neighborhood, usually a slum or lower class (many of the Latin American cities have these outside the central city)
explains that the price/demand for land increases closer to the CBD (explains the concentric zone model and why different levels of development are located at certain distances from the central city)
rapid change in the racial composition of residential blocks in American cities that occurs when real estate agents stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously white neighborhoods
CBD (central business district)
The downtown part of the central city, marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings
An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urban areas, census tracks correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
the functional dominance of cities within an urban system
the movement of people, capital, services, and govt. into the central city (opposite of suburban sprawl, happened to cities before WWII and is happening now)
Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another
He created the Central Place Theory, which explains how services are distributed and why there are distinct patterns in this distribution (central place theory involves market area/hinterland and the threshold, which is the minimum number of customers needed to keep the business running)
conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics
Similar to a landscape, yet of a city (often show the city's skyline, which is the CBD).
transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
The outer most zone of the Concentric Zone Model that represents people who choose to live in residential suburbia and take a daily commute in the CBD to work.
Concentric zone model
A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center
a net migration from urban to rural areas
the process of dispersing decision-making outwards from the center of authority
Process of social and economic change caused by removal of industry.
concentration of business, shopping, and entertainment outside a traditional downtown (or central business district) in what had previously been a residential or rural area.
City currently without much population but increasing in size at a fast rate
Trading center where goods are exported and imported without cost.
A shantytown or slum, especially in Brazil
A settlement which acts as a link between two areas.
Process in which low cost neighborhoods are renovated by middle class to increase property values.
A usually poor section of a city inhabited primarily by people of the same race, religion, or social background
Development of worldwide patterns of economic relationships
Surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods and services produced for its hinterland and it is the dominant urban influence as well.
the portion of an economy largely outside government control in which employees work without contracts or benefits; self-employed, low-wage jobs that are virtually unregulated and untaxed
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
Urban area around the CBD; typically poorer and more run down in the US and other long-developed states; typically more rich upscale in less-developed states.
cities with more than 10 million people
An extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas. The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C.
Includes a large city and all of its surrounding suburbs and towns. In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
Multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
a small social area within a city where residents share values and concerns and interact with one another on a daily basis
an area of land in which many office buildings are grouped together
Peak land value intersection
The region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce. As such, it is usually located in the central business district of a town or city, and has the greatest density of transport links such as roads and rail
any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area
A country's largest city-ranking atop the urban hierarchy-most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital as well.
real estate agents advising customers to purchase homes in neighborhoods depending on their race
A pattern of settlements in a country such that the largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
Illegal practice of refusing to make mortgage loans or issue insurance policies in specific areas for reasons other than economic qualifications of applicants
provision in a property deed preventing sale to a person of a particular race or religion; loan discrimination; ruled unconstitutional
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
a heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
residential areas on the outskirts of a city or large town
Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual). In North America, the process began in the early nineteenth century and became a mass phenomenon by the second half of the twentieth century.
Landscapes that express the values, beliefs and meanings of a particular culture.
a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
The population required to make provision of services economically feasible
In economic geography and central place theory, the minimum market needed to support the supply of a product or service
an urban area with a fixed boundary that is smaller than a city
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
less than full-time work or work that does not utilize a person's skills
Urban growth rate
Rate of growth of an urban population. Compare degree of urbanization.
Services that are provided in a certain urban area
Urban hearth area
An area where large cities first existed.
A ranking of settlements (hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis) according to their size and economic functions.
growth of cities; he social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
the proportion of the country's population living in the cities
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
Zone in transition
area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc.